Evidence about clinical management

Below we provide the ‘best’ living evidence syntheses currently available (i.e., the highest quality, most regularly updated living evidence syntheses) about the clinical management of COVID-19. All other evidence syntheses can be found in the searchable COVID-END inventory of evidence syntheses, which is organized using the COVID-END taxonomy of decisions.

In identifying the ‘best’ syntheses, we relied primarily on the three ‘best’ living evidence syntheses covering the safety and efficacy of all drug types (rather than syntheses covering single molecules):

  1. McMaster/Magic Evidence Ecosystem Foundation/BMJ (which maintains a living network meta-analysis about drug treatments, prophylaxis and antibodies and cellular therapies for COVID-19) – you can find the latest peer-reviewed publication in the BMJ for drug treatments, prophylaxis and antibody and cellular therapies, as well as its latest update on this website
  2. COVID-NMA (which is one of the two groups providing frequent updates to meta-analyses at the level of individual molecules)
  3. Pan American Health Organization (which is the second of two groups providing frequent updates to meta-analyses at the level of individual molecules)

Topic addressedCriteria for 'best evidence synthesis' Details to support relevance assessmentAdditional decision-relevant details Citation
Date of last search Quality (AMSTAR) rating Evidence-certainty (e.g., GRADE) assessment availableKey findings
Living evidence synthesis             Type of synthesis             Type of question
Drugs to prevent COVID-192022-03-0310/11Yes

Apart from casirivimab + imdevimab, and cilgavimab + tixagevimab, no other treatment studied in large clinical trials has demonstrated benefits as a prophylactic treatment for COVID-19.

See most updated version in this link https://www.covid19lnma.com/

Yes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsBartoszko JJ, Siemieniuk RAC, Kum E, Qasim A, Zeraatkar D, Ge L, et al. Prophylaxis for covid-19: Living systematic review and network meta-analysis. The BMJ. 2021;373(8290);n949.
 2022-06-087/11YesAmong the 204 therapeutic options that have been studied in clinical trials, evidence shows that baricitinib, corticosteroids, molnupiravir, nirmatrelvir/ritonavir (Paxlovid), REGEN-COV (casirivimab and imdevimab) and tocilizumab are the most promising alternatives that may have an effect on mortality and other clinical outcomes among COVID-19 patients. In terms of prophylaxis, REGEN-COV (casirivimab and imdevimab), bamlanivimab and tixagevimab-cilgavimab have demonstrated a possible effect by reducing the incidence of symptomatic infection Yes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
Drugs and other treatments for COVID-192022-03-2210/11Yes

The best-available evidence suggests that corticosteroids and interleukin-6 receptor antagonists and JAK inhibitors probably confer important benefits in patients with severe COVID-19; azithromycin, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, and interferon-beta do not have important benefits, while molnupiravir probably reduces admission to hospital in non-severe COVID-19 patients.

Nirmatrelvir (Paxlovid) has not yet been assessed.

See most updated version in this link https://www.covid19lnma.com/

 

Yes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsSiemieniuk R, Bartoszko JJ, Ge L, Zeraatkar D, Izcovich A, Kum E, et al. Update to living systematic review on drug treatments for covid-19. BMJ. 2021;370:m2980.
 2022-06-087/11Yes

Among the 204 therapeutic options that have been studied in clinical trials, evidence shows that baricitinib, corticosteroids, molnupiravir, nirmatrelvir/ritonavir (Paxlovid), REGEN-COV (casirivimab and imdevimab) and tocilizumab are the most promising alternatives that may have an effect on mortality and other clinical outcomes among COVID-19 patients. In terms of prophylaxis, only REGEN-COV (casirivimab and imdevimab) and bamlanivimab have demonstrated a possible effect by reducing the incidence of symptomatic infection

Yes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
 2022-08-0510/11YesRather than provide a high-level summary of the key findings from this complex synthesis, we encourage readers to look directly at the full review or to the rows in the second table belowYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Pharmacologic treatments for COVID-19 patients. 2021.
Management of post-COVID conditions2021-03-178/11NoWhereas there is a wide range of symptoms of long COVID the most commons seem to be fatigue, weakness, general malaise, breathlessness and concentration impairment [Review of studies of mainly low or moderate quality with important heterogeneity among their findings]Yes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewOtherMichelen M, Manoharan L, Elkheir N, Cheng V, Dagens A, Hastie C, et al. Characterising long COVID: A living systematic review. BMJ Global Health. 2021;6(9):e005427.
 2021-09-027/11NoAn increasing number of rehabilitation research is being conducted to address post COVID-19 symptoms and sequelae, in response to an increased report of common post-COVID impairments; interventions that have show some potential to improve quality of life in patients with post-COVID-19 conditions are unsupervised 6-week home exercise program and low-intensity aerobic training [Review of studies of unknown quality]Yes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewOtherde Sire A, Andrenelli E, Negrini, F Iannicelli V Lazzarini SG, Patrini M, Ceravolo MG; International Multiprofessional Steering Committee of Cochrane Rehabilitation REH-COVER action. Rehabilitation and COVID-19: update of the rapid living systematic review by Cochrane Rehabilitation Field as of August 31st, 2021. European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine. 2021.
Managing pandemic-related health impacts2022-04-045/11NoClinical staff working in high-exposure roles may report higher rates of anxiety and depression compared to low-exposure roles, and in both groups baseline rates of poor mental health are high [Review of studies of unknown quality conducted during COVID-19, Ebola, H1N1, MERS, and SARS outbreaks with important heterogeneity among their findings]

Updates published online in this URL (https://osf.io/t5a96/)
Yes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewOtherBell V & Wade D. Mental health of clinical staff working in high-risk epidemic and pandemic health emergencies a rapid review of the evidence and living meta-analysis. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. 2020.
 2020-11-067/11NoCompared to pregnant women without COVID, pregnant women with COVID-19 are less likely to present fever, dyspnoea and myalgia, they might be more likely to be admitted to an intensive care unit, and they are at higher risk of having preterm birth, whereas neonates delivered by a mother with COVID-19 are more likely to be admitted to a neonatal unit [Review of observational studies]

Most updated findings can be found here https://www.birmingham.ac.uk/research/who-collaborating-centre/pregcov/index.aspx)
Yes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewOtherUpdate to living systematic review on covid-19 in pregnancy. BMJ. 2021 Mar 10;372:n615.

Because the searchable COVID-END inventory is organized at the level of an evidence synthesis, we provide below an additional ‘way in’ to the evidence syntheses addressing drugs to prevent or treat COVID-19. Specifically, we summarize what’s known at the level of each individual molecule (e.g., corticosteroids, molnupiravir, tocilizumab), drawing on the first evidence synthesis in the table above. 

Broad and specific decisions Criteria for 'best evidence synthesis' Details to support relevance assessment Additional decision-relevant details Citation
Date of last search Quality (AMSTAR) rating Evidence-certainty (e.g., GRADE) assessment availableKey findings
Living evidence synthesisType of synthesisType of question
Clinical management of COVID-19 and pandemic-related health issues        
Prophylaxis for COVID-19
Prophylaxis for COVID-19          
 Drugs to prevent severe COVID-19 infection 2022-03-0310/11Yes[ARGOVIT AgNPs] In people at risk of COVID-19, using ARGOVIT AgNPs may reduce laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections; no data is available for other outcomesYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsBartoszko JJ, Siemieniuk RAC, Kum E, Qasim A, Zeraatkar D, Ge L, et al. Prophylaxis for covid-19: Living systematic review and network meta-analysis. The BMJ. 2021;373(8290);n949.
  
2022-06-087/11Yes[Bamlinivimab] Bamlinivimab probably decreases the incidence of symptomatic infection among exposed individualsYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2022-03-0310/11Yes[Bamlanivimab] In people at risk of COVID-19, using bamlanivimab may slightly reduce laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and it may make little or no different in mortalityYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsBartoszko JJ, Siemieniuk RAC, Kum E, Qasim A, Zeraatkar D, Ge L, et al. Prophylaxis for covid-19: Living systematic review and network meta-analysis. The BMJ. 2021;373(8290);n949.
   2022-04-2711/11Yes[Bamlanivimab] Using mablanivimab in people with undefined or potential exposure to SARS-CoV-2 probably decreases infection within 30 days, and it may make little or no difference in mortality; it may slightly increase the frequency of serious adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsHirsch C, Valk SJ, Piechotta V, Chai KL, Estcourt LJ, Monsef I, et al. SARS-CoV-2-neutralising monoclonal antibodies to prevent COVID-19. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2022;(5):CD014945
   2022-03-0310/11Yes[Casirivimab + imdevimab] In people at risk of COVID-19, using casirivimab + imdevimab may reduce suspected, probable and laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections, and it probably does not have an effect on mortality or hospitalization; it probably does not increase adverse events leading to discontinuation of the treatmentYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsBartoszko JJ, Siemieniuk RAC, Kum E, Qasim A, Zeraatkar D, Ge L, et al. Prophylaxis for covid-19: Living systematic review and network meta-analysis. The BMJ. 2021;373(8290);n949.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Casirivimab + imdevimab)] Using REGEN-COV (casirivimab and imdevimab) in exposed asymptomatic individuals reduces symptomatic infectionsYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2022-04-2711/11Yes[Casirivimab + imdevimab] Using casirivimab-imdevimab in people with undefined or potential exposure to SARS-CoV-2 may substantially decrease infection, and the development of symptoms within 6 months,  while it may increase the frequency of all-grade adverse events; used as a post-exposure prophylaxis, casirivimab + imdevimab decreases infection and the development of symptoms, while it may make little or no difference in mortality and hospital admissionsYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsHirsch C, Valk SJ, Piechotta V, Chai KL, Estcourt LJ, Monsef I, et al. SARS-CoV-2-neutralising monoclonal antibodies to prevent COVID-19. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2022;(5):CD014945
   2020-09-214/9No[Chloroquine] No evidence has been found on the effects of chloroquine as a prophylactic treatment to prevent COVID-19Yes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsHernandez AV, Roman YM, Pasupuleti V, Barboza JJ, White CM. Update alert 3: Hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine for the treatment or prophylaxis of COVID-19. Annals of Internal Medicine 2020:L20-1257.
   2022-03-0310/11Yes[Cilgavimab + tixagevimab] In people at risk of COVID-19, using cilgavimab + tixagevimab may reduce suspected, probable, or laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections, and it may not have an effect on mortalityYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsBartoszko JJ, Siemieniuk RAC, Kum E, Qasim A, Zeraatkar D, Ge L, et al. Prophylaxis for covid-19: Living systematic review and network meta-analysis. The BMJ. 2021;373(8290);n949.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Cilgavimab + tixagevimab] Using tixagevimab-cilgavimab in exposed asymptomatic individuals probably reduces symptomatic infections and it may not increase severe adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2022-04-2711/11Yes[Cilgavimab + tixagevimab] Using tixagevimab-cilgavimab in people with undefined or potential exposure to SARS-CoV-2 probably decrease infection, and it decreases the development of symptoms within 6 months, while it may make little or no difference in mortality; it may not increase serious adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsHirsch C, Valk SJ, Piechotta V, Chai KL, Estcourt LJ, Monsef I, et al. SARS-CoV-2-neutralising monoclonal antibodies to prevent COVID-19. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2022;(5):CD014945
   N/A (Protocol)n/aYes[Convalescent plasma] A review evaluating the effects of using convalescent plasma to prevent infection with SARS-CoV-2 is currently being conductedYes (row content last checked on 2022-04-25)ProtocolBenefits and harmsValk SJ, Piechotta V, Kimber C, Chai KL, Doree C, Wood EM, et al. Convalescent plasma and hyperimmune immunoglobulin to prevent infection with SARS‐CoV‐2. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2021;CD013802.
   2022-03-0310/11Yes[Dimethyl sulfoxide nasal spray] The effects of using dimethyl sulfoxide nasal spray as a prophylactic treatment are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsBartoszko JJ, Siemieniuk RAC, Kum E, Qasim A, Zeraatkar D, Ge L, et al. Prophylaxis for covid-19: Living systematic review and network meta-analysis. The BMJ. 2021;373(8290);n949.
   2022-03-0310/11Yes[Hydroxychloroquine] Adding prophylactic hydroxychloroquine to standard care does not have an important effect on mortality, hospitalization, and laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, and it does not increase adverse events leading to discontinuation of the treatmentYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsBartoszko JJ, Siemieniuk RAC, Kum E, Qasim A, Zeraatkar D, Ge L, et al. Prophylaxis for covid-19: Living systematic review and network meta-analysis. The BMJ. 2021;373(8290);n949.
   2022-08-0510/11Yes[Hydroxychloroquine] Using hydroxychloroquine as a prophylaxis strategy probably slightly reduces secondary COVID-19 cases, it may not have an effect on hospitalizations, and probably increases the risk of adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsPreventative treatments: Hydroxychloroquine vs placebo. COVID NMA; 2020.
   2020-09-214/9No[Hydroxychloroquine] No evidence has been found on the effects of chloroquine as a prophylactic treatment to prevent COVID-19Yes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsHernandez AV, Roman YM, Pasupuleti V, Barboza JJ, White CM. Update alert 3: Hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine for the treatment or prophylaxis of COVID-19. Annals of Internal Medicine 2020:L20-1257.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Hydroxychloroquine] Hydroxychloroquine may slightly reduce the risk of infection in individuals exposed to COVID-19, while its effects on other outcomes are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2022-03-0310/11Yes[Hydroxychloroquine + tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine] In people at risk of COVID-19, using hydroxychloroquine + tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine may not have an effect on hospitalization and it probably slightly increase adverse events leading to discontinuation of the treatment; its effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsBartoszko JJ, Siemieniuk RAC, Kum E, Qasim A, Zeraatkar D, Ge L, et al. Prophylaxis for covid-19: Living systematic review and network meta-analysis. The BMJ. 2021;373(8290);n949.
   N/A (Protocol)n/aYes[Hyperimmune immunoglobulin] A review evaluating the effects of using hyperimmune immunoglobulin to prevent infection with SARS-CoV-2 is currently being conductedYes (row content last checked on 2022-04-25)ProtocolBenefits and harmsValk SJ, Piechotta V, Kimber C, Chai KL, Doree C, Wood EM, et al. Convalescent plasma and hyperimmune immunoglobulin to prevent infection with SARS‐CoV‐2. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2021;CD013802.
   2022-03-0310/11Yes[Iota-carrageenan] In people at risk of COVID-19, using iota-carrageenan may not have an effect on mortality and it probably does not have an effect on hospitalization; it may also slightly increase adverse events leading to discontinuation of the treatmentYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsBartoszko JJ, Siemieniuk RAC, Kum E, Qasim A, Zeraatkar D, Ge L, et al. Prophylaxis for covid-19: Living systematic review and network meta-analysis. The BMJ. 2021;373(8290);n949.
   2022-03-0310/11Yes[Ivermectin] In people at risk of COVID-19, using ivermectin may have little or no impact on admission to hospital, while it may not increase adverse events leading to discontinuation of the treatment; its effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsBartoszko JJ, Siemieniuk RAC, Kum E, Qasim A, Zeraatkar D, Ge L, et al. Prophylaxis for covid-19: Living systematic review and network meta-analysis. The BMJ. 2021;373(8290);n949.
   2022-03-0310/11Yes[Ivermectin + iota-carrageenan] The effects of using ivermectin with iota-carrageenan as a prophylactic treatment for COVID-19 are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsBartoszko JJ, Siemieniuk RAC, Kum E, Qasim A, Zeraatkar D, Ge L, et al. Prophylaxis for covid-19: Living systematic review and network meta-analysis. The BMJ. 2021;373(8290);n949.
   2021-05-2611/11Yes[Ivermectin] The effects of using ivermectin to prevent COVID-19 infection are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsPopp M, Stegemann M, Metzendorf MI, Gould S, Kranke P, Meybohm P. Ivermectin for preventing and treating COVID-19. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2021;(7):CD015017.
   2022-03-0310/11Yes[Lopinavir + ritonavir] The effects of using lopinavir + ritonavir as a prophylactic treatment for COVID-19 are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsBartoszko JJ, Siemieniuk RAC, Kum E, Qasim A, Zeraatkar D, Ge L, et al. Prophylaxis for covid-19: Living systematic review and network meta-analysis. The BMJ. 2021;373(8290);n949.
   2022-03-0310/11Yes[Melatonin] In people at risk of COVID-19, using melatonin may not have an effect on laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections and hospitalizations, and it probably does not increase adverse events leading to discontinuation of the treatmentYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsBartoszko JJ, Siemieniuk RAC, Kum E, Qasim A, Zeraatkar D, Ge L, et al. Prophylaxis for covid-19: Living systematic review and network meta-analysis. The BMJ. 2021;373(8290);n949.
   2022-03-0310/11Yes[Povidone iodine] In people at risk of COVID-19, using povidone iodine may not have an effect on hospitalizations, and it may slightly increase adverse events leading to discontinuation of the treatment; its effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsBartoszko JJ, Siemieniuk RAC, Kum E, Qasim A, Zeraatkar D, Ge L, et al. Prophylaxis for covid-19: Living systematic review and network meta-analysis. The BMJ. 2021;373(8290);n949.
   2022-03-0310/11Yes[Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine] In people at risk of COVID-19, using tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine probably does not have an effect on hospitalizations, and it may increase adverse events leading to discontinuation of the treatment; its effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsBartoszko JJ, Siemieniuk RAC, Kum E, Qasim A, Zeraatkar D, Ge L, et al. Prophylaxis for covid-19: Living systematic review and network meta-analysis. The BMJ. 2021;373(8290);n949.
   2022-03-0310/11Yes[Vitamin C] In people at risk of COVID-19, using vitamin C may not have an effect on hospitalizations, and it may slightly increase adverse events leading to discontinuation of the treatment; its effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsBartoszko JJ, Siemieniuk RAC, Kum E, Qasim A, Zeraatkar D, Ge L, et al. Prophylaxis for covid-19: Living systematic review and network meta-analysis. The BMJ. 2021;373(8290);n949.
   2022-03-0310/11Yes[Vitamin C + zinc] In people at risk of COVID-19, using vitamin C + zinc may not have an effect on hospitalizations, and it probably increases adverse events leading to discontinuation of the treatment; its effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsBartoszko JJ, Siemieniuk RAC, Kum E, Qasim A, Zeraatkar D, Ge L, et al. Prophylaxis for covid-19: Living systematic review and network meta-analysis. The BMJ. 2021;373(8290);n949.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Vitamin D] Using vitamin D in exposed asymptomatic individuals probably does not reduces symptomatic infectionsYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   N/A (Protocol)n/aNo[Protocol - results not yet available] A review evaluating the effectiveness and safety of chemoprophylaxis for COVID-19 is currently being conducted Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-25)ProtocolBenefits and harmsWang Y, Li B, Zi H, Ma L, Zhao MJ, Huang Q, et al. Effectiveness and safety of chemoprophylaxis for COVID-19: A living systematic review and meta-analysis. PROSPERO. 2020; CRD42020190210
Clinical treatment of COVID-19
 Drugs to treat COVID-19         
  Anti-virals2022-06-0810/11Yes[Atazanavir/ritonavir] The effects of using atazanavir/ritonavir to treat COVID-19 patients are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
  
2022-08-0510/11Yes[Baloxavir marboxil] The effects of adding baloxavir marboxil to standard care are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Baloxavir Marboxil vs standard care. 2020.
   2022-08-0510/11No[Baloxavir marboxil vs favipiravir] The effects of baloxavir marboxil compared with favipravir are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsFavipiravir vs Baloxavir Marboxil. COVID NMA; 2020.
   2022-08-0510/11No[Darunavir/cobicistat] The effects of adding darunavir/cobicistat to standard care are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Darunavir/Cobicistat vs Standard Care. 2020.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Emtricitabine/tenofovir] The effects of emtricitabine/tenofovir to treat COVID-19 patients are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Ensitrelvir] The effects of using ensitrelvir to treat COVID-19 patients are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2022-08-0510/11Yes[Favipiravir] In COVID-19 hospitalized patients, favipiravir may make little or no difference in mortality, clinical improvement and disease progression, while it may increase viral negative conversion; its safety outcomes for hospitalized patients are uncertain, whereas it may slighlty increase any adverse event in outpatientsYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Favipiravir vs standard care. 2020.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Favipiravir] Using favipiravir probably does not have an effect on time to symptom resolution among COVID-19 patients, whereas it may increase mortality and mechanical ventilationYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2022-08-0510/11Yes[Favipiravir vs umifenovir] The benefits of favipiravir compared with umifenovir are uncertain while it may reduce adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsFavipiravir vs Umifenovir. COVID NMA; 2020
   2022-03-2210/11Yes[Lopinavir + ritonavir] Lopinavir + ritonavir may not reduce mortality and mechanical ventilation, and it may not have an effect on other patient clinical outcomes; it probably increases adverse events leading to discontinuation of treatmentYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsSiemieniuk R, Bartoszko JJ, Ge L, Zeraatkar D, Izcovich A, Kum E, et al. Update to living systematic review on drug treatments for covid-19. BMJ. 2021;370:m2980.
   2022-08-0510/11No[Lopinavir + ritonavir] Adding lopinavir + ritonavir to novaferon and standard care in moderate or severely ill people may increase the viral negative conversion but effects for other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsNovaferon + Lopinavir + Ritonavir vs Novaferon. COVID NMA; 2020
   2022-08-0510/11Yes[Lopinavir + ritonavir] In hospitalized patients, adding lopinavir + ritonavir to standard care probably makes little or no difference on mortality, clinical improvement and viral negative conversion, it may not have a substantial effect on disease progression, whereas it may increase adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsLopinavir + Ritonavir vs Standard Care. COVID NMA; 2020
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Lopinavir + ritonavir] Using lopinavir + ritonavir probably does not reduce mortality and may not increase the severe adverse events in COVID-19 patientsYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2022-08-0510/11Yes[Lopinavir + ritonavir vs hydroxychloroquine] Compared to hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir + ritonavir may slightly increase viral negative conversion, while it probably slightly increases the serious adverse events; the effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Lopinavir-Ritonavir vs Hydroxychloroquine. 2021.
   2022-08-0510/11No[Lopinavir + ritonavir vs novaferon] The effects of lopinavir + ritinoavir compared to novaferon are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsNovaferon vs Lopinavir + Ritonavir. COVID NMA; 2020.
   2022-08-0510/11Yes[Lopinavir + ritonavir vs umifenovir] Among hospitalized patients, umifenovir may reduce adverse events compared with lopinavir + ritonavir, and its effects on other clinical outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Lopinavir + Ritonavir vs Umifenovir. 2020.
   2022-08-0510/11Yes[Molnupiravir] In COVID-19 outpatients, molnupiravir probably slightly reduces mortality and hospitalization or death; it may not increase serious adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Molnupiravir vs placebo. 2021.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Molnupiravir] Using molnupiravir in recent onset patients with mild to moderate disease probably reduces hospitalization, and it may not increase severe adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2022-03-2210/11Yes[Molnupiravir] Molnupiravir may not have an effect on most patients outcome, while it does not increase adverse events leading to discontinuation of treatment; its effects on mortality or mechanical ventilation are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsSiemieniuk R, Bartoszko JJ, Ge L, Zeraatkar D, Izcovich A, Kum E, et al. Update to living systematic review on drug treatments for covid-19. BMJ. 2021;370:m2980.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Nirmatrelvir/ritonavir] Using nirmatrelvir/ritonavir in recent onset patients with mild to moderate disease probably reduces hospitalization, and it probably does not increase severe adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2022-03-2210/11Yes[Remdesivir] Remdesivir may slightly reduce mortality and mechanical ventilation, and it probably does not have an effect on the duration of mechanical ventilation; it does not increase adverse events leading to discontinuation of treatmentYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsSiemieniuk R, Bartoszko JJ, Ge L, Zeraatkar D, Izcovich A, Kum E, et al. Update to living systematic review on drug treatments for covid-19. BMJ. 2021;370:m2980.
   2022-08-0510/11Yes[Remdesivir] In hospitalized COVID-19 patients, remdesivir probably makes little or no difference in mortality at 28 days, it may slightly increase clinical improvement and it may reduce disease progression; it may not increase the incidence of any adverse eventYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Remdesivir vs standard care/placebo. 2020.
   2022-08-0510/11Yes[Remdesivir] Using remdesivir for five days compared to 10 days may increase disease progression, and increase the frequency of serious adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Remdesivir 5 days vs Remdesivir 10 days. 2020.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Remdesivir] Using remdesivir may not have an important effect on mortality, and it may reduce the need for invasive ventilation, and it may improve time to symptom resolutionYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2021-04-1610/11Yes[Remdesivir] Remdesivir probably has little or no difference on mortality and may not have an effect on clinical improvement, while it probably decreases the risk of serious adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsAnsems  K, Grundeis  F, Dahms  K, Mikolajewska  A, Thieme  V, Piechotta  V, et al. Remdesivir for the treatment of COVID‐19. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews .2021;8:Art. No.: CD014962. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD014962. 
   2022-08-0510/11Yes[Ribavirin + interferon-b-1b] The effects of adding ribavarin and interferon-b-1b to liponavir + ritonavir are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsLopinavir + Ritonavir + Ribavirin + Interferon-b-1b vs Lopinavir + Ritonavir. COVID NMA; 2020
   2022-08-0510/11Yes[Ribavirin + hydroxychloroquine] The effects of using ribavirin + hydroxychloroquine to treat COVID-19 hospitalized patients are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Hydroxychloroquine+Ribavirin vs Standard care. 2021.
   2022-08-0510/11Yes[Sofosbuvir/daclatasvir] Among hospitalized COVID-19 patients, using sofosbuvir/daclatasvir may produce little or no difference in the incidence of clinical improvement, and may not increase the adverse events; its effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Sofosbuvir/daclatasvir vs standard care. 2020.
   2022-03-2210/11Yes[Sofosbuvir] Antihepacivirals (including sofosbuvir/daclatasvir, sofosbuvir/ledipasvir, sofosbuvir/ravidasvir and sofosbuvir/velpatasvir) may reduce mechanical ventilation and they may have no effect on duration of hospitalization and duration of mechanical ventilation; they do not increase adverse events leading to discontinuation of treatmentYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsSiemieniuk R, Bartoszko JJ, Ge L, Zeraatkar D, Izcovich A, Kum E, et al. Update to living systematic review on drug treatments for covid-19. BMJ. 2021;370:m2980.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Sofosbuvir] Using sofosbuvir alone or in combination with daclatasvir, ledipasvir, velpatasvir, or ravidasvir may not have an effect on mortality or mechanical ventilation, whereas it probably does not affect time to symptom resolutionYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2022-08-0510/11Yes[Sofosbuvir/ledipasvir] The effects of sofosbuvir/ledipasvir are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Sofosbuvir/ledipasvir vs Standard care. 2021.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Tenofovir + emtricitabine] The effects of tenofovir + emtricitabine to treat COVID-19 patients are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2022-08-0510/11Yes[Umifenovir] The benefits of adding umifenovir to standard care in hospitalized patients are uncertain, while it may slightly increase adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsUmifenovir vs Standard Care. COVID NMA; 2020
   2022-08-0510/11Yes[Umifenovir vs favipiravir] See comparison under favipiravir vs umifenovirYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsFavipiravir vs Umifenovir. COVID NMA; 2020
   2022-08-0510/11Yes[Umifenovir vs lopinavir + ritonavir] See comparison under lopinavir + ritonavir vs umifenovirYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Lopinavir + Ritonavir vs Umifenovir. 2020.
   2020-07-055/9NoA systematic review on the cost-effectiveness of antiviral treatments for pandemics found no articles on COVID-19, but modelling studies showed that antivirals may be a cost-effective strategy either as a single intervention or as part of a multifaceted strategyNoFull reviewBenefits and harmsDawoud DM & Soliman KY. Cost-effectiveness of antiviral treatments for pandemics and outbreaks of respiratory illnesses, including COVID-19: A systematic review of published economic evaluations. Value in Health. 2020;23(11):1409-1422. 
   2022-03-227/11Yes[Atovaquone] The effects of using atovaquone to treat COVID-19 patients are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
  Other antimicrobials2022-03-2210/11Yes[Azithromycin] Azithromycin may not have an effect on mortality, mechanical ventilation, and duration of hospitalization, while it may not increase adverse events leading to discontinuationYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsSiemieniuk R, Bartoszko JJ, Ge L, Zeraatkar D, Izcovich A, Kum E, et al. Update to living systematic review on drug treatments for covid-19. BMJ. 2021;370:m2980.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Azithromycin] Azithromycin probably does not reduce mortality and mechanical ventilation, and does not improve time to symptom resolution among COVID-19 patientsYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2022-08-0510/11Yes[Azithromycin] The effects of adding azithromycin to hydroxychloroquine therapy in hospitalized patients are uncertain, and it may even slightly increase serious adverse events; it may slightly reduce viral negative conversion in mild outpatientsYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Hydroxychloroquine + Azithromycin vs Hydroxychloroquine. 2020.
   2022-08-0510/11Yes[Azithromycin + hydroxychloroquine] In hospitalized COVID-19 patients, azithromycin + hydroxychloroquine may not have an effect on clinical improvement and disease progression, while it may lead to an increase in adverse events; among mild outpatients, it may not have an effect on viral negative conversion and hospitalization or deathYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Hydroxychloroquine vs Azithromycin. 2020.
   2022-08-0510/11Yes[Chloroquine vs hydroxychloroquine] The effects of hydroxychloroquine compared to chloroquine are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Hydroxychloroquine vs Chloroquine. 2020.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Doxycycline] Doxycycline does not increase symptom resolution and clinical improvement, and it may not reduce hospitalizationsYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2022-03-2210/11Yes[Hydroxychloroquine] Hydroxychloroquine probably increases mortality and the need for mechanical ventilation, while it may not have an effect on the duration of hospitalization; it may also increase adverse events leading to discontinuation of treatmentYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsSiemieniuk R, Bartoszko JJ, Ge L, Zeraatkar D, Izcovich A, Kum E, et al. Update to living systematic review on drug treatments for covid-19. BMJ. 2021;370:m2980.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Hydroxychloroquine] Using hydroxychloroquine probably has no effect on mortality, invasive mechanical ventilation and time to symptom resolution among COVID-19 patients, and some studies show an increase in mortalityYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2022-08-0510/11Yes[Hydroxychloroquine vs ivermectin] The benefits of using hydroxychloroquine or ivermectin in hospitalized COVID-19 patients are uncertain, and the risk of adverse events may be similarYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Ivermectin vs hydroxychloroquine. 2021.
   2022-08-0510/11Yes[Hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin] See comparison under azithromycin + hydroxychloroquineYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Hydroxychloroquine vs Azithromycin. 2020.
   2022-08-0510/11Yes[Hydroxychloroquine vs lopinavir + ritonavir] See comparison under anti-virals/lopinavir + ritonavir vs hydroxychloroquineYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Lopinavir-Ritonavir vs Hydroxychloroquine. 2021.
   2022-08-0510/11Yes[Hydroxychloroquine + ribavirin] See comparison under anti-virals/ribavirin + hydroxychloroquineYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Hydroxychloroquine+Ribavirin vs Standard care. 2021.
   2022-02-2810/11Yes[Ivermectin] In mild outpatients or hospitalized patients, adding ivermectin to standard care may have no important effect on mortality at 28 days, clinical improvement, and disease progression; in outpatients, it may not increase the risk of serious adverse events and probably does not increase the risk of any adverse eventNoFull reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Ivermectin vs standard care/placebo. 2020.
   2022-03-2210/11Yes[Ivermectin] Ivermectin may reduce mortality, and it may not have an effect on length of hospital stay and time to symptom resolution; its effects on other outcomes are uncertain, while it probably does not increase adverse events leading to discontinuation of treatmentYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsSiemieniuk R, Bartoszko JJ, Ge L, Zeraatkar D, Izcovich A, Kum E, et al. Update to living systematic review on drug treatments for covid-19. BMJ. 2021;370:m2980.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Ivermectin] Ivermectin probably does not improve time to symptom resolution, and it does not have an important effect on reducing hospitalizations; its effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2021-05-2611/11Yes[Ivermectin] Ivermectin may have little or no benefit in clinical improvement and duration of hospitalization among moderate to severe COVID-19 patients, whereas it may have little or no benefit in symptom resolution among COVID-19 outpatients; its effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsPopp M, Stegemann M, Metzendorf MI, Gould S, Kranke P, Meybohm P. Ivermectin for preventing and treating COVID-19. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2021;(7):CD015017.
   2022-08-0510/11Yes[Ivermectin vs hydroxychloroquine] See comparison under hydroxychloroquine vs ivermectinYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Ivermectin vs hydroxychloroquine. 2021.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Niclosamide] The effects of using niclosamide to treat COVID-19 are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
  Anti-inflammatories2022-02-2810/11Yes[Colchicine] In hospitalized patients, colchicine probably makes little or no difference in mortality at 28 days and clinical improvement, while it may slightly reduce disease progression and it may increase adverse events; in outpatients, it may make little or no difference in mortality and hospitalization or death, while it probably does not increase serious adverse eventsNoFull reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Colchicine vs Standard Care. 2020.
   2022-03-2210/11Yes[Colchicine] Colchicine may not reduce mortality and it may reduce the need for mechanical ventilation; it may also increase adverse events leading to discontinuation of treatmentYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsSiemieniuk R, Bartoszko JJ, Ge L, Zeraatkar D, Izcovich A, Kum E, et al. Update to living systematic review on drug treatments for covid-19. BMJ. 2021;370:m2980.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Colchicine] Using colchicine in recently diagnosed COVID-19 patients probably does not reduce mortality, mechanical ventilation and time to symptom resolutionYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2021-05-2111/11Yes[Colchicine] In hospitalized patients, using colchicine probably makes little or no difference in mortality, mechanical ventilation and clinical improvement; among non-hospitalized patients, it may not have an effect on mortality, it probably slightly reduces admission to hospital or death and probably does not increase serious adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsMikolajewska A, Fischer AL, Piechotta V, Mueller A, Metzendorf MI, Becker M, et al. Colchicine for the treatment of COVID-19. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2021;(10):Art. No.: CD015045. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD015045.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Colchicine + rosuvastatin] The effects of colchicine + rosuvastatin to treat COVID-19 patients are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Indomethacin] The effects of indomethacin to treat COVID-19 patients are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   N/A (Protocol)n/aNo[Protocol - results not yet available] A systematic review on the effectiveness of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs  is currently being conductedYes (row content last checked on 2021-08-30)ProtocolBenefits and harmsUrrea G, Meza N, Vargas M, Ortiz L, Rada G, Madrid E. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs in Patients with COVID-19: a Living Systematic Review Protocol. PROSPERO 2020; CRD42020179594.
  Kinase inhibitors2020-12-305/9No[Acalabrutinib] The effects of using BTK inhibitors (including acalabrutinib) for severe COVID-19 are currently uncertain [Review of mainly observational studies of low to moderate quality]NoFull reviewBenefits and harmsStack M, Sacco K, Castagnoli R, Livinski AA, Notarangelo LD, Lionakis MS. BTK inhibitors for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2): A systematic review. Research Square. 2021.
   2022-03-2210/11Yes[Baricitinib] JAK inhibitors reduce mortality and probably reduce mechanical ventilation, while they do not have an effect on duration of hospitalization and duration of mechanical ventilation; they do not increase adverse events leading to discontinuation of treatmentYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsSiemieniuk R, Bartoszko JJ, Ge L, Zeraatkar D, Izcovich A, Kum E, et al. Update to living systematic review on drug treatments for covid-19. BMJ. 2021;370:m2980.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Baricitinib] Using baricitinib in patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 disease reduces mortality, it probably reduces mechanical ventilation requirements and time to symptom resolution, and it probably does not increase severe adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2022-08-0510/11Yes[Baricitinib] Among hospitalized COVID-19 patients, using baricitinib probably reduces mortality at 28 days, and it may also reduce mortality at 60 days; it probably makes little or no difference in clinical improvement, it may slightly reduce disease progression, and it may not increase serious adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Baricitinib vs Placebo. 2021.
   2020-12-305/9No[Ibrutinib] The effects of using BTK inhibitors (including ibrutinib) for severe COVID-19 are currently uncertain [Review of mainly observational studies of low to moderate quality]NoFull reviewBenefits and harmsStack M, Sacco K, Castagnoli R, Livinski AA, Notarangelo LD, Lionakis MS. BTK inhibitors for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2): A systematic review. Research Square. 2021.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Ibrutinib] The effects of using ibrutinib to treat COVID-19 patients are currently uncertain Yes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Imatinib] The effects of using imatinib to treat COVID-19 are uncertain Yes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2022-08-0510/11Yes[CIGB-325] The effects of using CIGB-325 are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. CIGB-325 vs standard care. 2020.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Opaganib] The effects of using opaganib to treat COVID-19 patients are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2022-08-0510/11No[Ruxolitinib vs vitamin C] The effects of ruxolitinib compared with vitamin C are uncertain, although further research is warranted since one very small study appeared to demonstrate a benefit for ruxolitinib for the outcomes of mortality and clinical improvementYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsRuxolitinib vs Vitamin C. COVID NMA; 2020.
   2022-03-2210/11Yes[Ruxolitinib] JAK inhibitors reduce mortality and probably reduce mechanical ventilation, while they do not have an effect on duration of hospitalization and duration of mechanical ventilation; they do not increase adverse events leading to discontinuation of treatmentYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsSiemieniuk R, Bartoszko JJ, Ge L, Zeraatkar D, Izcovich A, Kum E, et al. Update to living systematic review on drug treatments for covid-19. BMJ. 2021;370:m2980.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Ruxolitinib] In patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 disease, ruxolitinib may reduce mortality, and its effects on other outcomes are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Tofacitinib] Tofacitinib may increase symptom resolution or improvement, while it may increase severe adverse events in hospitalized and severe COVID-19 patientsYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2022-08-0510/11Yes[Tofacitinib] Using tofacitinib in hospitalized patients may slightly reduce mortality, and it may slightly increase clinical improvement, while it may also slightly increase severe adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsTofacitinib vs Placebo. COVID NMA; 2021.
   2022-03-2210/11Yes[Tofacitinib] JAK inhibitors reduce mortality and probably reduce mechanical ventilation, while they do not have an effect on duration of hospitalization and duration of mechanical ventilation; they do not increase adverse events leading to discontinuation of treatmentYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsSiemieniuk R, Bartoszko JJ, Ge L, Zeraatkar D, Izcovich A, Kum E, et al. Update to living systematic review on drug treatments for covid-19. BMJ. 2021;370:m2980.
  Corticosteroids2022-08-0510/11Yes[Budesonide] Budesonide may reduce hospitalization or death among mild COVID-19 outpatients; its effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Budesonide vs standard care. 2021.
   2022-08-0510/11Yes[Ciclesonide] In COVID-19 outpatients, ciclesonide may make little or no difference in hospitalization or death while it may slightly increase adverse events; its effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Ciclesonide vs Standard care/Placebo. 2021.
   2022-08-0510/11Yes[Corticosteroids] Adding corticosteroids to standard care among hospitalized COVID-19 patients reduces mortality and increases clinical improvement, while it may slightly increase adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Corticosteroids vs standard care/placebo. 2021.
   2022-03-2210/11Yes[Corticosteroids] Systemic corticosteroids (including dexamethasone, hydrocortisone, methylprednisolone, and methylprednisolone + prednisolone) probably reduce mortality and may reduce mechanical ventilation, while they may not have an effect on duration of hospitalization and duration of mechanical ventilation; no data has been reported for adverse events leading to discontinuation of treatmentYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsSiemieniuk R, Bartoszko JJ, Ge L, Zeraatkar D, Izcovich A, Kum E, et al. Update to living systematic review on drug treatments for covid-19. BMJ. 2021;370:m2980.
   2022-03-2210/11Yes[Corticosteroids + IL6 receptor antagonist] Systemic corticosteroids (including dexamethasone, hydrocortisone, methylprednisolone, and methylprednisolone + prednisolone) with IL6 receptor antagonists reduce mortality and probably reduce mechanical ventilation, while it may not have an effect on duration of hospitalization and duration of mechanical ventilation; no data has been reported for adverse events leading to discontinuationYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsSiemieniuk R, Bartoszko JJ, Ge L, Zeraatkar D, Izcovich A, Kum E, et al. Update to living systematic review on drug treatments for covid-19. BMJ. 2021;370:m2980.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Corticosteroids] Low- or moderate-dose treatment with corticosteroids probably reduces mortality in severe COVID-19 patients, while higher-doses may be more effective than standard dose schemesYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2021-04-1611/11Yes[Corticosteroids] Using corticosteroids probably reduces mortality slightly and may increase ventilator-free days; the effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsWagner C, Griesel M, Mikolajewska A, Mueller A, Nothacker M, Kley K, et al. Systemic corticosteroids for the treatment of COVID-19. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2021;(8):CD014963.
   2022-08-0510/11Yes[Dexamethasone low vs high dose] Compared to high-dose dexamethasone, using low-dose dexamethasone may slightly reduce mortality, while its effects on other outcomes are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Dexamethasone High Dose vs Dexamethasone Low Dose. 2022.
   2022-08-0510/11Yes[Dexamethasone vs tocilizumab] The effects of using either tocilizumab or dexamethasone to treat hospitalized COVID-19 patients are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Tocilizumab vs Dexamethasone. 2021.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Inhaled corticosteroids] Using inhaled corticosteroids probably improves time to symptom resolution, but their effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[AMP5A] The effects of using AMP5A to treat COVID-19 patients are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
  Biologics2020-06-2010/11Yes[Anakinra] The effects of using anakinra are uncertainNoFull reviewBenefits and harmsKim MS, An MH, Kim WJ, Hwang TH. Comparative efficacy and safety of pharmacological interventions for the treatment of COVID-19: A systematic review and network meta-analysis. PLOS Medicine. 2020;17(12):e1003501.
   2021-01-079/11Yes[Anakinra] The effects of anakinra for COVID-19 patients are uncertainNoFull reviewBenefits and harmsKhan F, Stewart I, Fabbri L, Moss S, Robinson K, Smyth AR, et al. A systematic review of Anakinra, Sarilumab, Siltuximab with meta-analysis of Tocilizumab for Covid-19. Thorax. 2020. 
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Anakinra] The effects of anakinra for COVID-19 patients are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2022-08-0510/11Yes[Anakinra] In hospitalized COVID-19 patients, anakinra may slightly reduce mortality, while it probably reduces disease progression and increases clinical improvement; it may not increase serious adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Anakinra vs standard care. 2021.
   2021-05-136/9Yes[APN01] The effects of APN01 cannot yet be assessed; upcoming studies are expected to be published soonYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsEUnetHTA Rolling Collaborative Review (RCR09) Authoring Team. APN01 for the treatment of COVID- 19. Diemen (The Netherlands): EUnetHTA; 2020.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Avdoralimab] Using avdoralimab in COVID-19 patients may not have an effect on mortality, and it may increase severe adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2022-08-0510/11Yes[Bamlanivimab] In hospitalized COVID-19 patients, bamlanivimab may make little or no difference in mortality and disease progression, and it probably does not increase clinical improvement; it may not increase the risk of serious adverse events for outpatients and hospitalized patients, while its effects on other outcomes for outpatients are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Bamlanivimab (LY-CoV555) vs Placebo. 2020.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Bamlanivimab] Using bamlanivimab probably decreases hospitalizations in patients with COVID-19, and its effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2021-06-1711/11Yes[Bamlanivimab] Bamlanivimab may decrease hospital admissions and may not increase adverse events among non-hospitalized COVID-19 patients; in hospitalized patients, it may not have an effect on duration of hospitalization and its effects on mortality are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsKreuzberger N, Hirsch C, Chai KL, Piechotta V, Valk SJ, Estcourt LJ, et al. SARS‐CoV‐2‐neutralising monoclonal antibodies for treatment of COVID‐19. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2021. 
   2021-07-2111/11Yes[Bamlanivimab] Bamlanivimab may reduce the risk of hospitalization, but does not appear to have an impact on mortality among severe patients, whereas its safety outcomes are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsSiemieniuk RA, Bartoszko JJ, Díaz Martinez JP, Kum E, Qasim A, Zeraatkar D, et al. Antibody and cellular therapies for treatment of covid-19: A living systematic review and network meta-analysis. BMJ. 2021;374:n2231.
   2022-08-0510/11Yes[Bamlanivimab + etesevimab] In mild outpatients, bamlanivimab + etesevimab may slightly reduce mortality and, it may increase clinical improvement and viral negative conversion, and it may reduce the risk of hospitalization or death; its safety outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. LY-CoV555+LY-CoV016 vs placebo. 2021.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Bamlanivimab + etesevimab] Bamlanivimab + etesevimab probably reduces hospitalizations in patients with COVID-19, while its effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2021-06-1711/11Yes[Bamlanivimab + etesevimab] Among non-hospitalized COVID-19 patients, bamlanivimab + etesevimab may decrease mortality and hospital admissions; its effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsKreuzberger N, Hirsch C, Chai KL, Piechotta V, Valk SJ, Estcourt LJ, et al. SARS‐CoV‐2‐neutralising monoclonal antibodies for treatment of COVID‐19. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2021. 
   2021-07-2111/11Yes[Bamlanivimab + etesevimab] Bamlanivimab + etesevimab may reduce the risk of hospitalization, but does not appear to have an impact on mortality among severe patients, whereas its safety outcomes are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsSiemieniuk RA, Bartoszko JJ, Díaz Martinez JP, Kum E, Qasim A, Zeraatkar D, et al. Antibody and cellular therapies for treatment of covid-19: A living systematic review and network meta-analysis. BMJ. 2021;374:n2231.
   2022-08-0510/11Yes[Bamlanivimab + etesevimab vs casirivimab/imdevimab] The effects of using bamlanivimab + etesevimab compared to casirivimab/imdevimab are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. LY-CoV555+LY-CoV016 vs REGN-COV2. 2021.
   2022-07-2210/11Yes[Bamlanivimab + etesevimab vs casirivimab/imdevimab] The effects of using bamlanivimab + etesevimab compared to casirivimab/imdevimab are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. LY-CoV555+LY-CoV016 vs REGN-COV2. 2021.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[RBD-specific polyclonal F(ab')2 fragments of equine antibodies] The effects of using INM005 in COVID-19 patients are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Canakinumab] The effects of canakinumab to treat COVID-19 patients is currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2022-08-0510/11Yes[Canakinumab] Among patients hospitalized with COVID-19, canakinumab may slightly reduce mortality and disease progression, while it probably slightly increases clinical improvement; it may not increase the risk of severe adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Canakinumab vs Placebo. 2021.
   2022-06-0810/11Yes[CD24Fc] In patients with severe COVID-19, CD24Fc (soluble CD24 appended to heavy chains 2 and 3 of human immunoglobulin G1) may reduce mechanical ventilation and increase symptom resolution; its effects on other outcomes are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2022-08-0510/11Yes[Clazakizumab] The effects of using clazakizumab to treat hospitalized COVID-19 patients are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Clazakizumab vs Placebo. 2022.
   2022-06-0810/11Yes[Clazakizumab] In patients with severe or critical COVID-19, using clazakizumab may reduce mechanical ventilation and it may improve time to symptom resolution; its effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2022-06-0810/11Yes[Dupilumab] The effects of using dupilumab to treat COVID-19 patients are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2022-08-0510/11Yes[Etesevimab] Compared to bamlanivimab (LY-CoV555) alone, adding etesevimab (LY-CoV016) to bamlanivimab may have slight benefits for clinical improvement, and it may have more adverse events; the effects on other outcomes are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. LY-CoV555 vs LY-CoV555+LY-CoV016. 2021.
   2022-08-0510/11Yes[Interferon alpha-2b] The effects of using interferon alpha-2b in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Interferon alpha2b vs Standard care. 2021.
   2022-08-0510/11Yes[Inferferon β-1a] The effects of using interferon β-1a to treat COVID-19 patients are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Interferon β vs standard care/placebo. 2020.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Interferon β-1a] Using interferon β-1a probably has no effect on mortality and invasive ventilation, whereas inhaled interferon β-1a may improve time to symptom resolutionYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2022-08-0510/11Yes[Interferon β-1b + rivabirin] See comparison under anti-virals/ribavirin +interferon-b-1b + lopinavir + ritonavir vs lopinavir + ritonavirYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsLopinavir + Ritonavir + Ribavirin + Interferon-b-1b vs Lopinavir + Ritonavir. COVID NMA; 2020
   2022-03-2210/11Yes[Interferon β-1b] Interferon β-1b may not reduce mortality and mechanical ventilation, and it may not have an effect in other patient clinical outcomes, while it probably does not increase adverse events leading to discontinuationYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsSiemieniuk R, Bartoszko JJ, Ge L, Zeraatkar D, Izcovich A, Kum E, et al. Update to living systematic review on drug treatments for covid-19. BMJ. 2021;370:m2980.
   2022-08-0510/11Yes[Interferon gamma] The effects of adding interferon gamma to a interferon α-2b  therapy are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Interferon α-2b + Interferon gamma+ vs Interferon α-2b. 2020.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Interleukin-2] The effects of using interleukin-2 to treat COVID-19 patients are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2022-08-0510/11Yes[Itolizumab] The effects of adding itolizumab to standard care are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Itolizumab vs standard care. 2020.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Ixekizumab] The effects of using ixekizumab to treat COVID-19 patients are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Gimsilumab] Using gimsilumab to treat COVID-19 patients may not reduce mortality and symptom resolution, while its effects on other outcomes are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Lenzilumab] Using lenzilumab may reduce mortality and invasive ventilation rates in severe COVID-19 patientsYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Levilimab] Levilimab may improve time to symptom resolution in COVID-19 patients, and its effects on other outcomes are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2022-03-2210/11Yes[Levilimab] Interleukin-6 inhibitors (including tocilizumab, sarilumab, siltuximab and levilimab) probably make little or no difference on mortality and duration of hospitalization, while they probably reduce mechanical ventilation and they may not have an effect on duration of mechanical ventilation; they do not increase adverse events leading to discontinuation of treatmentYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsSiemieniuk R, Bartoszko JJ, Ge L, Zeraatkar D, Izcovich A, Kum E, et al. Update to living systematic review on drug treatments for covid-19. BMJ. 2021;370:m2980.
   2021-05-036/9Yes[Mavrilimumab] The effects of mavrilimumab to treat COVID-19 patients are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsEUnetHTA Rolling Collaborative Review (RCR21). Authoring Team. Mavrilimumab for the treatment of COVID-19. Diemen (The Netherlands): EUnetHTA; 2021.
   2020-07-017/11No[Meplazumab] One systematic review comparing several immunomodulatory agents for managing COVID-19 infection concluded that meplazumab is probably not  beneficialNoFull reviewBenefits and harmsTalaie H, Hosseini SM, Nazari M, et al. Is there any potential management against COVID-19? A systematic review and meta-analysis [published online ahead of print, 2020 Aug 18]. Daru. 2020;1-13. doi:10.1007/s40199-020-00367-4
   2022-08-0510/11No[Novaferon] The effects of adding novaferon to lopinavir + ritonavir are uncertain although one small study found a benefit for novaferon and lopinavir +ritonavir for increasing viral clearanceYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsNovaferon + Lopinavir + Ritonavir vs Lopinavir + Ritonavir. COVID NMA; 2020
   2022-08-0510/11No[Novaferon vs lopinavir + ritonavir] See comparison under anti-virals/lopinavir + ritonavir vs novaferonYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsNovaferon vs Lopinavir + Ritonavir. COVID NMA; 2020.
   2022-08-0510/11Yes[Peginterferon lambda-1] The benefnits of using peginterferon lamda-1 in mild COVID-19 outpatients are currently uncertain, while it may not increase serious adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Peginterferon Lambda-1 vs placebo. 2020.
   2022-06-0810/11Yes[Pembrolizumab] The effects of using pembrolizumab to treat COVID-19 patients are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2022-08-0510/11Yes[Recombinant super-compound interferon(RSIFN-co)] The effects of RSIFN-co compared to IFN-alpha are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. rSIFN-co vs IFN-alpha. 2020.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Regdanvimab] Using regdanvimab may improve time to symptom resolution, but its effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2021-06-1711/11Yes[Regdanvimab] Among non-hospitalized COVID-19 patients, regdanvimab may reduce a combined measure that includes both hospital admissions (which is the more common of the two outcomes) and death (while having no direct effect on mortality alone), and it may increase the risk of serious adverse events; its effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsKreuzberger N, Hirsch C, Chai KL, Piechotta V, Valk SJ, Estcourt LJ, et al. SARS‐CoV‐2‐neutralising monoclonal antibodies for treatment of COVID‐19. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2021. 
   2022-06-087/11Yes[REGEN-COV] REGEN-COV (casirivimab and imdevimab) may reduce mortality and mechanical ventilation, while it may improve time to symptom resolution among COVID-19 patients with severe to critical disease; in patients with mild recent COVID-19 onset, it probably reduces hospitalizations and probably improve time to symptom resolution, without increasing severe adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2021-06-1711/11Yes[REGEN-COV (casirivimab and imdevimab)] Casirimab + imdevimab may substantially reduce a combined measure that includes both hospital admissions (which is the more common of the two outcomes) and death (while having no direct effect on mortality alone), while its safety and effects on other outcomes are uncertain among non-hospitalized COVID-19 patients; in hospitalized patients, it probably has little to no effect on mortality, clinical progressions and duration of hospitalizationYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsKreuzberger N, Hirsch C, Chai KL, Piechotta V, Valk SJ, Estcourt LJ, et al. SARS‐CoV‐2‐neutralising monoclonal antibodies for treatment of COVID‐19. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2021. 
   2021-07-2111/11Yes[REGEN-COV] REGEN-COV (casirimab + imdevimab) may reduce the risk of mortality in severe COVID-19 patients with detectable antibodies to SARS-CoV-2, but does not appear to have an impact on mortality among severe patients; it probably reduces the risk of hospitalization, whereas its safety outcomes are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsSiemieniuk RA, Bartoszko JJ, Díaz Martinez JP, Kum E, Qasim A, Zeraatkar D, et al. Antibody and cellular therapies for treatment of covid-19: A living systematic review and network meta-analysis. BMJ. 2021;374:n2231.
   2022-08-0510/11Yes[REGEN-COV2] In hospitalized COVID-19 patients, REGEN-COV2 (casirimab + imdevimab) probably slightly reduces mortality and increases clinical improvement, it may slightly reduce disease progression, while no information on safety outcomes is available; in outpatients, it may slightly reduce hospitalization or death and it may not increase serious adverse events, while its effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. REGN-COV2 vs placebo. 2020.
   2022-08-0510/11Yes[Sarilumab] Using sarilumab for hospitalized COVID-19 patients may make little or no difference in mortality and clinical improvement, while it may slightly increase adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Sarilumab vs standard care. 2020.
   2021-01-079/11Yes[Sarilumab] The effects of sarilumab for COVID-19 patients are uncertainNoFull reviewBenefits and harmsKhan F, Stewart I, Fabbri L, Moss S, Robinson K, Smyth AR, et al. A systematic review of Anakinra, Sarilumab, Siltuximab with meta-analysis of Tocilizumab for Covid-19. Thorax. 2020. 
   2022-03-2210/11Yes[Sarilumab] Interleukin-6 inhibitors (including tocilizumab, sarilumab, siltuximab and levilimab) probably make little or no difference on mortality and duration of hospitalization, while they probably reduce mechanical ventilation and they may not have an effect on duration of mechanical ventilation; they do not increase adverse events leading to discontinuation of treatmentYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsSiemieniuk R, Bartoszko JJ, Ge L, Zeraatkar D, Izcovich A, Kum E, et al. Update to living systematic review on drug treatments for covid-19. BMJ. 2021;370:m2980.
   2021-02-269/11Yes[Sarilumab] Compared to standard care, sarilumab may make little or no difference in mortality, and time to clinical improvement, while probably does not increase adverse events in severe and critical patientsYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsGhosn L, Chaimani A, Evrenoglou T,  Davidson M, Graña C, Schmucker C, et al. Interleukin‐6 blocking agents for treating COVID‐19: A living systematic review. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2021. 
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Sarilumab] Sarilumab may not reduce mortality and it probably does not improve time to symptom resolution, while it may reduce mechanical ventilation requirements without increasing severe adverse events in patients with severe COVID-19 diseaseYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Secukinumab] The effects of using secukinumab to treat COVID-19 patients are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2021-01-079/11Yes[Siltuximab] The effects of siltuximab for COVID-19 patients are uncertainNoFull reviewBenefits and harmsKhan F, Stewart I, Fabbri L, Moss S, Robinson K, Smyth AR, et al. A systematic review of Anakinra, Sarilumab, Siltuximab with meta-analysis of Tocilizumab for Covid-19. Thorax. 2020. 
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Siltuximab] The effects of siltuximab for COVID-19 patients are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2022-03-2210/11Yes[Siltuximab] Interleukin-6 inhibitors (including tocilizumab, sarilumab, siltuximab and levilimab) probably make little or no difference on mortality and duration of hospitalization, while they probably reduce mechanical ventilation and they may not have an effect on duration of mechanical ventilation; they do not increase adverse events leading to discontinuation of treatmentYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsSiemieniuk R, Bartoszko JJ, Ge L, Zeraatkar D, Izcovich A, Kum E, et al. Update to living systematic review on drug treatments for covid-19. BMJ. 2021;370:m2980.
   2022-03-2210/11Yes[Tocilizumab] Interleukin-6 inhibitors (including tocilizumab, sarilumab, siltuximab and levilimab) probably make little or no difference on mortality and duration of hospitalization, while they probably reduce mechanical ventilation and they may not have an effect on duration of mechanical ventilation; they do not increase adverse events leading to discontinuation of treatmentYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsSiemieniuk R, Bartoszko JJ, Ge L, Zeraatkar D, Izcovich A, Kum E, et al. Update to living systematic review on drug treatments for covid-19. BMJ. 2021;370:m2980.
   2022-08-0510/11Yes[Tocilizumab] Among hospitalized patients, tocilizumab reduces mortality at 28 days, slightly increases the incidence of clinical improvement, and may slightly reduce disease progression; it probably makes little or no difference in the incidence of adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Tocilizumab vs standard care/placebo. 2021.
   2022-08-0510/11Yes[Tocilizumab vs dexamethasone] See comparison under corticosteroids/ dexamethasone vs tocilizumabYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Tocilizumab vs Dexamethasone. 2021.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Sotrovimab] In patients with mild COVID-19 patients, sotrovimab probably reduces hospitalization and improves time to symptom resolution without increasing severe adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2021-06-1711/11Yes[Sotrovimab] Among non-hospitalized COVID-19 patients, sotrovimab may substantially reduce oxygen requirement and a combined measure that includes both hospital admissions (which is the more common of the two outcomes) and death (while having no direct effect on mortality alone), while it may not increase serious adverse events; its effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsKreuzberger N, Hirsch C, Chai KL, Piechotta V, Valk SJ, Estcourt LJ, et al. SARS‐CoV‐2‐neutralising monoclonal antibodies for treatment of COVID‐19. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2021. 
   2021-07-2111/11Yes[Sotrovimab] Sotrovimab may reduce the risk of hospitalization, but does not appear to have an impact on mortality among severe patients, whereas its safety outcomes are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsSiemieniuk RA, Bartoszko JJ, Díaz Martinez JP, Kum E, Qasim A, Zeraatkar D, et al. Antibody and cellular therapies for treatment of covid-19: A living systematic review and network meta-analysis. BMJ. 2021;374:n2231.
   2022-08-0510/11Yes[Sotrovimab] Among COVID-19 hospitalized patients, sotrovimab may not have an effect on mortality and disease progression while it may increase clinical improvement and it probably substantially increases serious adverse events; in outpatients, it may not have an effect on mortality and it probably reduces the risk of hospitalization or death while it probably does not increase serious adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Sotrovimab vs Placebo. 2021.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Tocilizumab] Using tocilizumab in patients with severe COVID-19 disease  reduces mortality and the need for mechanical ventilation, whereas it does not importantly increase severe adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2021-02-049/11No[Tocilizumab] Tocilizumab reduces the risk of mechanical ventilation, probably reduces the risk of secondary infections in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, and has uncertain effects on mortalityYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsTleyjeh IM, Kashour Z, Riaz M, Hassett L, Veiga VC, Kashour T. Efficacy and safety of tocilizumab in COVID-19 patients: A living systematic review and meta-analysis: First update. Clinical Microbiology and Infection. 2021. Epub ahead of print.
   2021-02-269/11Yes[Tocilizumab] Compared to standard care, tocilizumab slightly reduces 28-day mortality, may not have an effect on 60-day mortality, probably may slightly increase clinical improvement and it probably does not increase serious adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsGhosn L, Chaimani A, Evrenoglou T,  Davidson M, Graña C, Schmucker C, et al. Interleukin‐6 blocking agents for treating COVID‐19: A living systematic review. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2021. 
  Others2022-08-0510/11Yes[a-Lipoic acid] It is uncertain whether a-Lipoic acid has any differential effects compared with placebo due to very low certainty evidenceYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsa-Lipoic Acid vs Placebo. COVID NMA; 2020
   2020-07-316/6Yes[ACE inhibitors and ARB] No evidence was found evaluating the effects of using angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers for COVID-19 treatmentYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsMeza N, Pérez-Bracchiglione J, Pérez I, Carvajal C, Ortiz-Muñoz L, Olguín P, et al. Angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers for COVID-19: A living systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Medwave. 2021;21(2):e8105.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Aspirin] Among COVID-19 patients, aspirin probably does not have an effect on mortality or mechanical ventilation, and it probably does not increase symptom resolution or clinical improvementYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2022-08-0510/11Yes[Auxora] The effects of using auxora in hospitalized COVID-19 patients are currently uncertain, while it may not increase severe adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Auxora vs standard care. 2020.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Beta-glucans] The effects of using beta-glucans to treat COVID-19 patients are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Calcitriol] The effects of using calcitriol to treat COVID-19 patients are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Camostat] Using camostat to treat COVID-19 patients may not reduce time to symptom resolution, while its effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2022-08-0510/11Yes[Camostat mesilate] Using camostat to treat hospitalized COVID-19 patients may make little or no difference in mortality, clinical improvement, and disease progression; its safety outcomes are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Camostat Mesilate vs Placebo. 2021.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Canabidiol] The effects of using cannabidiol to treat COVID-19 patients are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2020-04-235/6Yes[Cell-based therapies] No evidence was found on the effects of cell-based therapies for COVID-19Yes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsRada G, Corbalan J, Rojas P. Cell-based therapies for COVID-19: A living systematic review. Medwave. 2020;20(11):e8079.
   2022-08-0510/11Yes[Colony-stimulating factor] Adding recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor to standard care may reduce mortality and increase adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor vs standard care. 2020.
   2022-08-0510/11Yes[C1 esterase inhibitor] The effects of adding C1 esterase/kallikrein inhibitor to standard care are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. C1 Esterase/Kallikrein inhibitor vs standard care. 2020.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Dapagliflozin] In hospitalized COVID-19 patients with cardiometabolic risk factors, dapagliflozin may reduce mortality, but probably does not improve symptom resolutionYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Degarelix] The effects of using degarelix to treat COVID-19 patients are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Dimethyl sulfoxide (DSMO)] The effects of using DSMO to treat COVID-19 patients are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Dornase alfa] The effects of using dornase alfa to treat COVID-19 patients are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2020-09-208/11Yes[Famotidine] The effects of famotidine for COVID-19 patients are uncertainNoFull reviewBenefits and harmsSethia R, Prasad M, Jagannath S, Nischal N, Soneja M, Garg P, et al. Efficacy of Famotidine for COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. medRxiv. 2020.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Famotidine] The effects of famotidine for COVID-19 patients are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Fluvoxamine] Among COVID-19 patients with mild disease, fluvoxamine probably reduces hospitalizations and it may not increase adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2022-08-0510/11Yes[Fluvoxamine] Using fluvoxamine among COVID-19 outpatients may slightly reduce mortality; its effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Fluvoxamine vs placebo. 2020.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Hesperidin] Hesperidin may not have an effect on symptom resolution among COVID-19 patients, and its effects on other outcomes are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Lactoferrin] The effects of using lactoferrin to treat COVID-19 patients are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Levamizole] The effects of using levamizole to treat COVID-19 patients are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Linagliptin] The effects of using linagliptin to treat COVID-19 patients are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewbenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2022-08-0510/11Yes[Losartan] Among hospitalized COVID-19 patients, losartan may not increase clinical improvement at 28 days; its effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Losartan vs Standard care/Placebo. 2021
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Hypertonic saline] The effects of using a nasal hypertonic saline are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Mefenamic acid] The effects of using mefenamic acid to treat COVID-19 patients are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Melatonin] The effects of using melatonin to treat COVID-19 patients are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Nafamostat] The effects of nafamostat mesylate to treat COVID-19 patients are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2022-08-0510/11Yes[Nafamostat] In COVID-19 hospitalized patients, nafamostat may slightly reduce mortality and it may increase adverse events; its effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Nafamostat vs Standard care. 2021.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[P2Y12 inhibitors] Using PSY12 inhibitors in combination with full dose anticoagulants may not have an effect on mortality or time to symptom resolutionYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Plitidepsin] The effects of using plitidepsin to treat COVID-19 patients are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Potassium canrenoate] The effects of using potassium canrenoate to treat COVID-19 patients are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Prostacycline] The effects of using prostacycline (including inhaled prostacycline) to treat COVID-19 patients are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Proxalutamide] Using proxalutamide may reduce mortality, mechanical ventilation, and may improve time to symptom resolution in COVID-19 patientsYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Quercetin] The effects of using quercetin to treat COVID-19 patients are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Raloxifene] The effects of using raloxifene to treat COVID-19 patients are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Reparixin] The effects of using reparixin to treat COVID-19 patients are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2022-08-0510/11Yes[Sargramostim] The effects of using sargramostim to treat COVID-19 patients are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Sargramostim vs Standard care. 2022.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Senicapoc] The effects of using senicapoc to treat COVID-19 patients are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Sitagliptin] The effects of using sitagliptin to treat COVID-19 patients are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2021-05-116/9Yes[Solnative] The effects of solnatide cannot yet be assessed; upcoming studies are expected to be published soonYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsEUnetHTA Rolling Collaborative Review (RCR06) Authoring Team. Solnatide for the treatment of COVID-19. Diemen (The Netherlands): EUnetHTA; 2021
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Spironolactone] The effects of using spironolactone to treat COVID-19 patients are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2020-07-277/10No[Statins] Statins have shown to reduce fatal or severe disease in COVID-19 patients [Review of observational studies of unclear quality]NoFull reviewBenefits and harmsKow CS & Hasan SS. Meta-analysis of effect of statins in patients with COVID-19. The American Journal of Cardiology. 2020.
   2022-08-0510/11Yes[Stem cells] In hospitalized patients, human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell infusion may slightly increase the incidence of clinical improvement, and it may not increase adverse events; its effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell infusion vs standard care/placebo. 2020.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Tranilast] The effects of using tranilast to treat COVID-19 patients are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2022-03-2210/11Yes[Vitamin C] Vitamin C may make little or no difference on length of hospital stay, while its effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsSiemieniuk R, Bartoszko JJ, Ge L, Zeraatkar D, Izcovich A, Kum E, et al. Update to living systematic review on drug treatments for covid-19. BMJ. 2021;370:m2980.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Vitamin C] Using vitamin C to treat COVID-19 patients may increase symptom resolution, while its effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2022-08-0510/11Yes[Vitamin D] The effects of using vitamin D are uncertain and it may increase adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Vitamin D vs standard care/placebo. 2020.
   2022-03-2210/11Yes[Vitamin D] Vitamin D probably does not have an effect on duration of hospitalization while it may reduce mechanical ventilation; its effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsSiemieniuk R, Bartoszko JJ, Ge L, Zeraatkar D, Izcovich A, Kum E, et al. Update to living systematic review on drug treatments for covid-19. BMJ. 2021;370:m2980.
   2021-03-119/10Yes[Vitamin D] Vitamin D may reduce the need for invasive mechanical ventilation in moderate to severe patients; its effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsStroehlein JK, Wallqvist J, Iannizzi C, Mikolajewska A, Metzendorf MI, Benstoem C, et al. Vitamin D supplementation for the treatment of COVID-19: A living systematic review. Cochrane Database of Systematic Rev.iews 2021;5:CD015043. 
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Vitamin D] Using vitamin D to treat COVID-19 patients may not reduce hospitalizations, while its effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2022-06-1010/11Yes[Zilucoplan] The effects of using zilucoplan to treat COVID-19 patients are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2022-08-0510/11Yes[Zinc] The effects of adding zinc to hydroxychloroquine therapy are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Hydroxychloroquine+Zinc vs Hydroxychloroquine. 2020.
 Other treatments for COVID-19NA2022-06-087/11Yes[Hemadsorption] The effects of using hemadsorption to treat COVID-19 patients are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   2021-04-205/10No[Nitric oxide] Among severe/critical COVID-19 patients, evidence has shown a slight increase in oxygenation in patients receiving nitric oxide, but no effect on mortality has been reported [Review of mainly observational studies of unclear quality]NoFull reviewBenefits and harmsPrakash A, Kaur S, Kaur C, Prabha PK, Bhatacharya A, Sarma P, et al. Efficacy and safety of inhaled nitric oxide in the treatment of severe/critical COVID-19 patients: A systematic review. Indian Journal of Pharmacology. 2021;53(3):236-243.
   2022-08-0510/11Yes[Photobiomodulation therapy] Using photobiomodulation therapy may reduce mortality; the effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Photobiomodulation therapy vs Standard care/Placebo. 2021.
   2022-06-087/11Yes[Probiotics] Using probiotics to treat COVID-19 patients may improve time to symptom resolution, whereas its effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-08-08)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 8 June 2022. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2022.
   N/A (Protocol)n/aYes[Protocol - results not yet available] A review evaluating pulmonary rehabilitation for patients with COVID-19 is currently being conductedYes (row content last checked on 2021-12-13)ProtocolOtherPardo SA, Lai S, Ortiz-Munoz L, Bravo-Jeria R, Verdugo-Paiva F, Rada G, et al. Pulmonary rehabilitation for COVID-19: A living systematic review protocol. Medwave. 2021;21(6):e8224.