skip to main content
covidend_logo_color

Our network of sites

Evidence about economic and social responses

 

We continue to add evidence syntheses to this webpage as we harvest and process weekly updates from ‘high-yield, high quality’ sources of evidence syntheses and as we add new sources. More details are available about the context for the inventory, our approach to developing and maintain it, and tips for using it. Similar webpages are available for evidence about public-health measures, the clinical management of COVID-19 and related conditions, and health-system arrangements.

Broad and specific decisions Criteria for 'best evidence synthesis' Details to support relevance assessment Additional decision-relevant details Citation
Date of last search Quality (AMSTAR) rating Evidence profile (e.g., GRADE) available Key findings
Living evidence synthesis              Type of synthesis              Type of question
                 
Children and youth services                
  To be added                
Citizenship                
  Community engagement                
  Civil-rights violations                
  Elections                
Climate action                
  Climate-action focused economic stimulus                
  More to be added                
Community and social services                
  Shopping and other services for socially isolated individuals 2020-09-11  4/9  No  A review of strategies to reduce wait times for essential businesses among people with limited mobility showed that several interventions have been implemented by different countries including reserved hours of operation for specific populations, online orders and deliveries  No  Rapid review  Other  Institut national d'excellence en santé et en services sociaux (INESSS). COVID-19 et mesures permettant aux personnes qui présentent des difficultés de mobilité de réduire leur temps d’attente en file devant les commerces ou les établissements (publics ou privés) offrant des services essentiels. INESSS. 2020 
  Religious services restrictions (e.g., church, mosque or synagogue)
               
  Supports for community resilience                
Culture and gender                
  Stigma reduction                
  Domestic and gender-based violence reduction 2020-06-07
8/10  Yes  A living review has yet to find studies that measure how the COVID-19 pandemic affects mental health in ways that are associated with domestic violence Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Full review  Other  John A, Eyles E, McGuinness LA, Okolie C, Olorisade BK, Schmidt L, Webb RT, Arenseman E, Hawton K, Kapur N, Moran P, O'Connor RC, O'Neill S, Gunnell D, Higgins JPT. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on self-harm and suicidal behaviour: protocol for a living systematic review [version 1; peer review: 1 approved with reservations]. F1000Research 2020;9:644. 
    2020-04-12
4/9  No  There is an increase in intimate partner violence during pandemics, and substance use and intimate partner violence appear to be bidirectionally related [Review of studies conducted during COVID-19 era and beyond] No  Rapid review  Other  Greaves L, Brabete AC, Wolfson L, Stinson J, Allen S, Poole N. Substance Use (SU) among Women in the Context of the Corollary Pandemics of COVID-19 and Intimate Partner Violence (IPV). Ottawa, ON: Centre of Excellence for Women's Health; 2020. 
    2020-04-20
7/9  No  Psychological therapies may be effective in reducing the psychological symptoms associated with domestic violence or sexual assault, and virtual care interventions appear most effective as a supplement to or facilitator of in-person trauma-focused care [Review based on studies of unknown quality] No Rapid review Benefits and harms  Montesanti S, Silverstone P, Wells L, Ghidei W. Examining the use of virtual care interventions to provide trauma-focused treatment to domestic violence and sexual assault populations. Edmonton, AB: Canadian Institutes of Health Research; 2020. 
  Arts and cultural institutions                
  Religious institutions and practices                
Economic development and growth                
  Economic resilience                
  Targeted support to most affected industries                
  Interest rate reductions                
  Interest-free or -reduced loans to businesses                
  Revolving credit lines                
  Corporate bond buying (by government)                
  Government bond buying (by central banks)                
  Rent relief for businesses (by government)                
  Debt relief for businesses (by government)                
  Debt relief for governments (e.g., by IMF)                
  Tax deferral for businesses                
Education                
  Online instruction                
  Student supports                
  Instructor supports                
  Classroom changes N/A (Protocol)
n/a Yes  [Protocol - no results yet available] A review on the effectiveness of school practices to promote social distancing for COVID-19 in schools is currently being conducted Yes (row content last updated on 2020-12-07) Protocol  Benefits and harms  Pena J, Gonzalez C, Cuadrado C, Rada G. School Practices to Promote Social Distancing for COVID-19: a Living Systematic Review Protocol. PROSPERO 2020; CRD42020180701. 
  School changes N/A (Protocol)  n/a Yes  [Protocol - no results yet available] A review on the effectiveness of school practices to promote social distancing for COVID-19 in schools is currently being conducted Yes (row content last updated on 2020-12-07) Protocol  Benefits and harms  Pena J, Gonzalez C, Cuadrado C, Rada G. School Practices to Promote Social Distancing for COVID-19: a Living Systematic Review Protocol. PROSPERO 2020; CRD42020180701. 
    2020-10-13
8/10  Yes  The risk of transmission among children in schools and daycares, and from children to adults more generally may be low  Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Rapid review  Other  National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools. Rapid Review Update 9: What is the specific role of daycares and schools in COVID-19 transmission? Hamilton, ON: National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools; 2020. 
    2020-07-14
9/11  No  Insufficient evidence was found on the risks of COVID-19 transmission in schools, but some indication that there is a lower infection attack rate among students compared to school staff [Review of observational studies] Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Full review  Other  Wei X, Xue L, Marshall D, Yazhou H, Amir K, Zhongyu L, et al. What is the evidence for transmission of COVID-19 by children in schools? A living systematic review. medRxiv. 2020.  
  Skill re-development programs                
  Service planning for 'return to normal'                 
Employment                
  Worker supports                
  Workplace changes                
  Building changes                
  Service planning for 'return to normal'
               
Energy supply                
  To be added                
Environmental conservation                
  Fire bans due to limitations in and risk for fire-fighting personnel                
  More to be added                
Financial protection                
  Income replacement                
  Wage subsidies for essential workers                
  Rent deferral for citizens                
  Debt relief for citizens                
  Tax deferral for citizens                
  Financial-scam prevention                
  Broader consumer protection                
Food safety and security                
  Agricultural processes                
  Food processing plant design                
  Food transportation adjustments                
  Food shopping changes                
  Food handling practices                
  Household food security
               
  Food handling practices
               
Government services                
  Transitioning to e-services                
  More to be added                
Housing                
  Homeless shelters                
  Other congregate living environments                
  Housing alternatives when quarantine or physical distancing is needed                
Infrastructure                
  Broadband internet access                
  Cyber-security protocols for governments and businesses (see financial protection for protecting citizens from financial scams)                
  Green-space re-allocations to accommodate physical distancing                
  Road-space re-allocations to accommodate physical distancing                
Natural resources                
  Price collapses                
  Distribution difficulties                
Public safety and justice                
  Curfews                
  Enforcement of public-health measures






 
  Public demonstrations                
  Police work in pandemics  Not specified
4/9  No  Natural disasters and public-health emergencies might affect police-community relations, the mental health of police officers, cause disruption of interorganizational departments, and influence inter-agency cooperation [Review of studies conducted during COVID-19 era and beyond] No  Full review  Other  Laufs J, Waseem Z. Policing in pandemics: A systematic review and best practices for police response to COVID-19. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction. 2020;51:101812. 
  Prisons                
Recreation                
  Public spaces like parks                
  Private spaces like gyms 2021-01-21 8/9 No Synthesis pending
Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Full review Benefits and harms COVID NMA. Social Distancing at Sports Training vs No Access to Sports Training Facilities. 2020.
Transportation                
  Quarantining travellers 2020-06-23
7/10  Yes  The effectiveness of quarantining individuals travelling from a country with a declared outbreak is uncertain  Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Rapid review  Other  Nussbaumer-Streit B, Mayr V, Dobrescu AIulia, Chapman A, Persad E, Klerings I, et al. Quarantine alone or in combination with other public health measures to control COVID‐19: A rapid review. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2020;(4)CD013574. 
  Public transportation rules 2020-07-29
8/11  No  A systematic review assessing the effect of physical distancing measures on mental health showed that closures of public transportation appear to be associated with an increase in anxiety levels  No  Full review  Other  Castaldelli-Maia JM, Marziali ME, Lu Z, Martins SS. Investigating the effect of national government physical distancing measures on depression and anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic through meta-analysis and meta-regression. 2020. 
  Private transportation restrictions 2020-06-26
8/9  Yes  Whereas the majority of the available evidence is uncertain and coming from the pre-COVID era, studies suggest that restricting cross-border travel may reduce the number of imported and exported cases of COVID-19, and reduce the acceleration of epidemic progression  No  Rapid review  Benefits and harms  Burns J, Movsisyan A, Stratil JM, Coenen M, Emmert-Fees KMF, Geffert K, et al. Travel‐related control measures to contain the COVID‐19 pandemic: A rapid review. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.2020;(9):Art. No.: CD013717. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD013717.
    2020-04-01
5/9  No  A systematic review assessing international public health responses to the COVID-19, MERS and SARS pandemics found that flight suspensions were one of the common management decisions made by governments  No  Rapid review  Other  Tabari P, Amini M, Moghadami M, Moosavi M. International public health responses to COVID-19 outbreak: A rapid review. Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences. 2020;45(3):157-169. 

creative commons This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.