Evidence about economic and social responses

Evidence syntheses on this webpage are organized by government sector (e.g., culture and gender, education, employment, housing, public safety and justice, and transportation). This webpage includes syntheses addressing service limitations to prevent infection (e.g., school closures), as well as those addressing interventions to reduce domestic and gender-based violence.

We continue to add evidence syntheses to this webpage as we harvest and process weekly updates from ‘high-yield, high quality’ sources of evidence syntheses and as we add new sources. More details are available about the context for the inventory, our approach to developing and maintain it, and tips for using it. Similar webpages are available for evidence about public-health measures, the clinical management of COVID-19 and related conditions, and health-system arrangements.

Broad and specific decisions Criteria for 'best evidence synthesis' Details to support relevance assessmentAdditional decision-relevant details Citation
Date of last search Quality (AMSTAR) rating Evidence-certainty (e.g., GRADE) assessment availableKey findings
Living evidence synthesis             Type of synthesis             Type of question
         
Children and youth services         
  2020-05-10
4/10 No Limited evidence found important facilitators of and barriers to effective remote leadership for the delivery of social services for children and families [Review of observational studies of unknown quality conducting during and pre COVID-19 era] No Rapid review Other Wilkins D, Thompson S, Bezeczky Z. Child and family social work during the COVID-19 pandemic: A rapid review of the evidence in relation to remote leadership. Wales: Cardiff University 2020; 
  2020-11-014/9NoMental health, substance use, protection, communication and education for children and families were identified as major themes related to COVID-19 that child welfare organizations need to focus on in support of knowledge acquisition [Review of studies of unknown quality]NoRapid reviewOtherMilne L, Reid N, Prado S, Priel C, Fisher R, Ramiz R. Translating knowledge for child welfare organizations across the prairies: Managing the impacts of COVID-19 on the mental health of children, families, and workers. Regina: University of Regina. 2020;
Citizenship         
 Community engagement 2020-05-02
5/9 No Community engagement to support infection prevention and control activities can take many different forms and approaches [Review of studies conducted during the COVID-19, Ebola, Zika, MERS, H1N1 and SARS outbreaks]No Rapid review Other Gilmore B, Ndejjo R, Tchetchia A, de Claro V, Mago E, Diallo AA, et al. Community engagement for COVID-19 prevention and control: A rapid evidence synthesis. BMJ Global Health. 2020;5(10):e003188. 
 Civil-rights violations 2020-07-014/9NoEvidence suggests a relationship between human rights violations during the COVID-19 pandemic and adverse mental health outcomes [Review of studies of unclear quality]NoRapid reviewOtherRahman M, Ahmed R, Moitra M, Damschroder L, Brownson R, Chorpita B, et al. Mental distress and human rights violations during COVID-19: A rapid review of the evidence informing rights, mental health needs, and public policy around vulnerable populations. Front Psychiatry. 2021;11:603875.
 Elections         
Climate action         
 Climate-action focused economic stimulus 2020-08-295/9NoA descriptive review shows an update of the three pillars of sustainability framework (society, environment and economy) highlighting the likely impacts the COVID-19 pandemic has had on sustainability [Review of studies of unclear quality conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic and before]NoFull reviewHow and why it worksRanjbari M, Shams Esfandabadi Z, Zanetti MC, Scagnelli SD, Siebers PO, Aghbashlo M, Peng W, Quatraro F, Tabatabaei M. Three pillars of sustainability in the wake of COVID-19: A systematic review and future research agenda for sustainable development. Journal of Cleaner Production. 2021; 297: 126660.
Community and social services         
 Shopping and other services for socially isolated individuals 2020-09-11 4/9 No A review of strategies to reduce wait times for essential businesses among people with limited mobility showed that several interventions have been implemented by different countries including reserved hours of operation for specific populations, online orders and deliveries No Rapid review Other Institut national d'excellence en santé et en services sociaux (INESSS). COVID-19 et mesures permettant aux personnes qui présentent des difficultés de mobilité de réduire leur temps d’attente en file devant les commerces ou les établissements (publics ou privés) offrant des services essentiels. INESSS. 2020 
 Religious services restrictions (e.g., church, mosque or synagogue)
        
 Supports for community resilience 2020-05-10
4/10 No Limited evidence found important facilitators of and barriers to effective remote leadership for the delivery of social services for children and families [Review of observational studies of unknown quality conducting during and pre COVID-19 era] No Rapid review Other Wilkins D, Thompson S, Bezeczky Z. Child and family social work during the COVID-19 pandemic: A rapid review of the evidence in relation to remote leadership. Wales: Cardiff University 2020; 
Culture and gender         
 Stigma reduction 2020-05-20
7/9 No Very little evidence is available exploring discrimination and stigma associated with COVID-19 infection Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Rapid review Other National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools. Rapid review: What is known about stigmatization related to COVID-19 in Canada? Hamilton: National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools; 2020. 
 Domestic and gender-based violence reduction2020-06-015/9 No Psychological therapies may be effective in reducing the psychological symptoms associated with domestic violence or sexual assault, and virtual care interventions appear most effective as a supplement to or facilitator of in-person trauma-focused care [Review based on studies of unknown quality]NoRapid reviewBenefits and harms Montesanti S, Silverstone P, Wells L, Ghidei W. Examining the use of virtual care interventions to provide trauma-focused treatment to domestic violence and sexual assault populations. Edmonton, AB: Canadian Institutes of Health Research; 2020. 
  2020-09-04
7/9 No Gender inequity and violence was found to be a social consequence of mass quarantine during epidemics [Review of studies conducted during COVID-19, MERS, H1N1, SARS and other outbreaks] No Full review Other Chu IY, Alam P, Larson H, Lin L. Social consequences of mass quarantine during epidemics: a systematic review with implications for the COVID-19 response. Journal of Travel Medicine. 2020. 
  2020-07-16
8/10 No Gender gaps in employment have probably been increased during the COVID-19 pandemic among families with children No Rapid review Other National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools. What is known about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on families with children? Hamilton, ON: National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools; 2020. 
  2020-04-01
6/11 No Evidence suggests that online programs might help decrease the perpetration of psychological and physical intimate partner violence in motivated individuals [Review of studies of unknown quality]No Full review Benefits and harms Spencer CM, Stith SM, King EL. Preventing maltreatment at home: A meta-analysis examining outcomes from online programs. Research on Social Work Practice. 2020.  
  2020-05-236/10NoWhile no evidence was found during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdowns, pre-pandemic studies showed that social and geographical isolation was associated with higher levels of intimate partner violence [Review of studies of variable quality conducted before the COVID-19 pandemic]NoRapid reviewOtherMojahed A, Brym S, Hense H, Grafe B, Helfferich C, Lindert J, Garthus-Niegel S. Rapid Review on the Associations of Social and Geographical Isolation and Intimate Partner Violence: Implications for the Ongoing COVID-19 Pandemic. Frontiers in Psychiatry. 2021;12:578150
 Arts and cultural institutions 2021-01-04
7/9 NoThe risk of transmitting COVID-19 while singing or playing wind instruments, as well as the effects of strategies to mitigate risks associated with these activities, are uncertain No Rapid review Other National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools. What is known about the risk of transmission of COVID-19 during musical activities such as singing or playing a wind instrument, and how can these risks be mitigated? National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools; 2021. 
 Religious institutions and practices N/A (Protocol)n/aNo[Protocol - results not yet available] A review exploring the relationship between religious practices and coping during the COVID-19 pandemic is currently being conductedNoProtocolOtherDavid A & Park C. Religion and coping during COVID-19. PROSPERO. 2021; CRD42021235938
Economic development and growth         
 Economic resilience 2020-09-04
7/9 No Economic challenges have been identified as a social consequence of mass quarantine during epidemics [Review of studies conducted during COVID-19, MERS, H1N1, SARS and other outbreaks]No Full review Other Chu IY, Alam P, Larson H, Lin L. Social consequences of mass quarantine during epidemics: a systematic review with implications for the COVID-19 response. Journal of Travel Medicine. 2020. 
  N/A (Protocol)
n/a No [Protocol - results not yet available] A review evaluating the economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in different countries is currently being conducted No Protocol Other Souresrafil A & Rezapour A. The economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review protocol. PROSPERO. 2020; CRD42020193549 
  2020-07-245/9NoSeveral interventions were identified to protect jobs, enterprises and formal/informal workers in response to the COVID-19 pandemic [Review of studies of unknown quality conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic and before]NoRapid reviewOtherMawani FN, Gunn V, O'Campo P, Anagnostou M, Muntaner C, Wanigaratne S, et al. COVID-19 economic response and recovery: A rapid scoping review. International Journal of Health Services. 2021. 
 Targeted support to most affected industries         
 Interest rate reductions         
 Interest-free or -reduced loans to businesses         
 Revolving credit lines         
 Corporate bond buying (by government)         
 Government bond buying (by central banks)         
 Rent relief for businesses (by government)         
 Debt relief for businesses (by government)         
 Debt relief for governments (e.g., by IMF)         
 Tax deferral for businesses         
Education         
 Online instruction N/A (Protocol)
n/aYes [Protocol - results not yet available] A review evaluating the impact of web-based or virtual peer learning among university students during the COVID-19 pandemic is currently being conducted No Protocol Benefits and harms Kaur M, Sharma N, Srivastav AK. A systematic review of the beneficial and detrimental impacts of web-based learning or virtual peer learning among university students during the COVID-19 era. PROSPERO. 2020; CRD42020203553 
  2020-09-205/9NoThe evidence on the challenges of switching classes to emergency remote education has been associated with teachers' digital competencies, family access to technology, parental engagement, and student wellbeing [Review of studies of unknown quality]Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Rapid reviewOtherBond M. Schools and emergency remote education during the COVID-19 pandemic: A living rapid systematic review. Asian Journal of Distance Education. 2020;15(2):191-247.
 Student supports N/A (Protocol)
n/aYes [Protocol - results not yet available] A review evaluating the impact of distance learning on the wellbeing of students in higher education during the COVID-19 pandemic is currently being conducted NoProtocol Other Czakert JP, Ballesteiros GP, Berger R. The impact of distance teaching and learning on the well-being of teachers and students in higher education - a systematic review of covid-19-related research. PROSPERO. 2021;CRD42021229211. 
  2021-01-018/11NoThe prevalence of depressive symptoms, anxiety and sleep disturbances has been estimated to be more than 30% among students in higher education during the COVID-19 pandemic [Review of studies of variable quality and high heterogeneity]NoFull reviewOtherDeng J, Zhou F, Hou W, Silver Z, Wong CY, Chang O, Drakos A, Zuo QK, Huang E. The prevalence of depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms and sleep disturbance in higher education students duringthe COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychiatry  Research. 2021.
  2020-09-018/10NoSchool closures have been associated with a considerable harm to the health and well-being of children and young people [Review of studies of variable quality conducted during and pre COVID-19 era]NoFull reviewOtherViner R, Russell R, Saulle R, Croker H, Stansfeld C, Packer J, et al. Impacts of school closures on physical and mental health of children and young people: A systematic review. medRxiv. 2021.
  N/A (Protocol)n/aNo[Protocol - results not yet available] A review evaluating the learning loss in the educational system during the COVID-19 pandemic is currently being conductedYes (row content last checked on 2021-08-30)ProtocolOtherBetthaeuser BA, Bach-Mortensen AM, Engzell P. Learning loss during the COVID-19 pandemic: A living systematic review and meta-analysis. PROSPERO. 2021;CRD42021249944.
 Instructor supports N/A (Protocol)
n/aYes [Protocol - results not yet available] A review evaluating the impact of distance learning on the wellbeing of teachers in higher education during the COVID-19 pandemic is currently being conducted No Protocol Other Czakert JP, Ballesteiros GP, Berger R. The impact of distance teaching and learning on the well-being of teachers and students in higher education - a systematic review of covid-19-related research. PROSPERO. 2021;CRD42021229211. 
  N/A (Protocol)n/aNo[Protocol - results not yet available] A review exploring the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in school staff is currently being conductedNoProtocolOtherKarki SJ, Lange B, Heinsohn T, Joachim A. The risk of infection and contribution to transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in school staff - A systematic review. PROSPERO. 2021; CRD42021239225
  2021-01-016/10NoEstimates of the prevalence of anxiety among teachers during the COVID-19 pandemic range from 10% to 50%, while depression ranges from 16% to 29% [Review of studies of unknown quality]NoFull reviewOtherSilva DFO, Cobucci RNO, Lima SCVC, de Andrade FB. Prevalence of anxiety, depression, and stress among teachers during the COVID-19 pandemic: Systematic review. medRxiv. 2021.
 Classroom changes N/A (Protocol)
n/aYes [Protocol - results not yet available] A review on the effectiveness of school practices to promote social distancing for COVID-19 in schools is currently being conductedYes (row content last checked on 2021-08-30)Protocol Benefits and harms Pena J, Gonzalez C, Cuadrado C, Rada G. School Practices to Promote Social Distancing for COVID-19: a Living Systematic Review Protocol. PROSPERO 2020; CRD42020180701. 
  N/A (Protocol)n/aNo[Protocol - results not yet available] A review evaluating economic aspects of strategies to reduce COVID-19 infections in schools is currently being conductedNoProtocolCosts and Cost-EffectivenessScheckel B, Redaelli M, Lange B, Karki S. Economic aspects of different strategies to reduce SARS-CoV 2 infections in schools: A rapid systematic review. PROSPERO. 2021; CRD42021237889
 School changes2021-07-22
8/10 No When infection prevention and control measures are in place and adhered to, the risk of transmission among children in schools, daycares and camps, and from children to adults more generally is probably lowYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Rapid review Other National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools. Living Rapid Review Update 17: What is the specific role of daycares and schools in COVID-19 transmission? Hamilton, ON: McMaster University; 2021.
  2020-07-14
9/11 No Insufficient evidence was found on the risks of COVID-19 transmission in schools, but some indication that there is a lower infection attack rate among students compared to school staff [Review of observational studies]Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full review Other Wei X, Xue L, Marshall D, Yazhou H, Amir K, Zhongyu L, et al. What is the evidence for transmission of COVID-19 by children in schools? A living systematic review. Journal of Global Health. 2020;10(2).
  2020-06-10
5/9 No Whereas the effects of closing schools are uncertain, children appear to be less likely to be infected by SARS-CoV-2 at schools compared to home settings Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Rapid review Other COVID-19 Scientific Advisory Group. What role might children play in community SARS-CoV-2 transmission? What measures might mitigate potential additional risk of transmission of COVID-19 related to school and daycare reopening? Calgary, AB: Alberta Health Services; 2020. 
  2021-07-298/10NoThe risk of transmission of COVID-19 within post-secondary institutions and the effects of strategies to mitigate on-campus outbreaks is currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Rapid reviewOtherThe National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools. Living rapid review update 3: What is known about the risk of transmission of COVID-19 within post-secondary institutions and the strategies to mitigate on-campus outbreaks? Hamilton: NCCMT. 2021;
  2020-06-214/9NoThe limited evidence available assessing the role of children in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 suggests that children may be unlikely to play an important role in overall transmission [Review of studies of unknown quality]Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Rapid reviewOtherLi X, Xu W, Dozier M, He Y, Kirolos A, Lang Z, et al. The role of children in the transmission of SARS-CoV2: Updated rapid review. Journal of Global Health. 2020;10(2):021101. 
 Skill re-development programs         
 Service planning for 'return to normal' 2020-07-01 5/9 No Local context and circumstances surrounding community outbreaks should be considered when easing school lockdown restrictions, and when developing and implementing mitigation strategies and public-health measures [Review of observational studies of unknown quality] NoFull review Other D'angelo D, Sinopoli A, Napoletano A, Gianola S, Castellini G, Del Monaco A, et al. Strategies to exiting the COVID-19 lockdown for workplace and school: A scoping review. Safety Science. 2021.  
  2021-05-318/10NoReopening schools may not have an important role in COVID-19 transmission in the communityYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full reviewOtherNational Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools. Living Rapid Review Update 16: What is the specific role of daycares and schools in COVID-19 transmission? Hamilton, ON: McMaster University; 2021.
Employment         
 Worker supports 2020-07-16 8/10 No The COVID-19 pandemic has probably impacted families with children by reducing the number of working hours, especially for female caregivers No Rapid review Other National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools. What is known about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on families with children? Hamilton, ON: National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools; 2020. 
  2020-05-05
6/10 No Significant variation was found among studies evaluating the impacts of working at home on individuals' mental and physical health, however communication between managers and colleagues as well as financial compensation might be useful to mitigate any potential risks associated with remote work [Review of observational studies conducted during before COVID-19 pandemic] No Rapid review Other Oakman J, Kinsman N, Stuckey R, Graham M, Weale V. A rapid review of mental and physical health effects of working at home: How do we optimise health? BMC Public Health. 2020;20(1):1825. 
  2021-04-015/9NoThe impact of COVID-19 pandemic on employment and work-related aspects may substantially vary by age [Review of studies of unclear quality]NoRapid reviewOtherBellotti L, Zaniboni S, Balducci C, Grote G. Rapid review on COVID-19, work-related aspects, and age differences. 2021;18(10):5166.
 Workplace changes2020-07-234/9NoMost of the literature evaluating the impact of COVID-19 on work has focused on healthcare workers, whereas limited evidence on managerial challenges may be addressed by studies focused on ergonomics and psychodynamics in work places [Review of studies of unknown quality]NoFull reviewOtherSigahi TFAC, Kawasaki BC, Bolis I, Morioka SN. A systematic review on the impacts of Covid‐19 on work: Contributions and a path forward from the perspectives of ergonomics and psychodynamics of work. Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing. 2021.
  2021-03-126/9NoEvidence suggests that non-pharmaceutical interventions for reducing COVID-19 appear to be more effective when used as a combination of multiple measures (social distancing, isolation and quarantine, and workplace distancing); a number of major enablers and barriers that impact the effectiveness of these interventions have been identified [Review of observational studies mainly of low quality]NoFull reviewOtherRegmi K & Lwin CM. Factors associated with the Implementation of non-pharmaceutical interventions for reducing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): A systematic review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021;18(8):4274. 
 Building changes         
 Service planning for 'return to normal'
2020-07-01
5/9 No Local context and circumstances surrounding community outbreaks should be considered when easing workplace lockdown restrictions, and when developing and implementing mitigation strategies and public-health measures [Review of observational studies of unknown quality] NoFull review Other D'angelo D, Sinopoli A, Napoletano A, Gianola S, Castellini G, Del Monaco A, et al. Strategies to exiting the COVID-19 lockdown for workplace and school: A scoping review. Safety Science. 2021.  
Energy supply         
Environmental conservation         
 Fire bans due to limitations in and risk for fire-fighting personnel 2020-08-017/10NoWhile limited evidence was found evaluating interventions to support firefighters' mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic, evidence shows that they are often exposed to unique mental-health challenges that increases their risk of developing mental-health disorders [Review of studies of unknown quality]NoFull reviewOtherSindena KE, Sayeda S, Bolducb R, Tellaa E, MacDermid JC. Supporting firefighter mental health during COVID-19: A scoping review. CIHR. 2020;
Financial protection         
 Income replacement         
 Wage subsidies for essential workers         
 Rent deferral for citizens         
 Debt relief for citizens         
 Tax deferral for citizens         
 Financial-scam prevention         
 Broader consumer protection         
Food safety and security         
 Agricultural processes         
 Food processing plant design         
 Food transportation adjustments         
 Food shopping changes         
 Food handling practices         
 Household food security2021-05-058/9YesFood insecurity appears to be more prevalent during the COVID-19 pandemic than before the pandemic, particularly among low-income populations across studies, but the estimated are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Rapid reviewOtherThe National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools. Rapid review update 2: What is the prevalence of household food insecurity in North America as a result of COVID-19 and associated public health measures? Hamilton, ON: McMaster University; 2021.
  2021-04-015/10NoFood security has been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic and associated public-health measures (e.g., lockdowns), and this impact has been larger among low-income households [Review of studies of unknown quality]NoFull reviewOtherÉliás BA & Jámbor A. Food security and COVID-19: A systematic review of the first-year experience. Sustainability. 2021; 13(9):5294.
Government services         
 Transitioning to e-services         
Housing        
 Homeless shelters 2020-07-27
8/10 No Higher rates of infections have been consistently found in congregate settings such as shelters  compared to community settings Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Rapid reviewOther National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools. What factors increase the risk of COVID-19 outbreaks in congregate living settings? How do outcomes compare to outbreaks in community settings?Hamilton, ON: National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools; 2020. 
 Other congregate living environments 2020-07-27
8/10 No Higher rates of infections have been consistently found in congregate settings (e.g., shelters, prisons and others) compared to community settings Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Rapid review Other National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools. What factors increase the risk of COVID-19 outbreaks in congregate living settings? How do outcomes compare to outbreaks in community settings?Hamilton, ON: National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools; 2020. 
 Housing alternatives when quarantine or physical distancing is needed N/A (Protocol)
n/a No [Protocol - no results yet available] A review exploring mitigation strategies among people experiencing homelessness during the COVID-19 pandemic is currently being conducted No Protocol Other Zhu A, Bruketa E, Orkin A, Svoboda T, Baral S. A systematic review of COVID-19 mitigation strategies among people experiencing homelessness. PROSPERO. 2020; CRD42020208964. 
Infrastructure         
 Broadband internet access         
 Cyber-security protocols for governments and businesses (see financial protection for protecting citizens from financial scams)         
 Green-space re-allocations to accommodate physical distancing         
 Road-space re-allocations to accommodate physical distancing         
 Domestic production capacity for critical supplies        
Natural resources         
 Price collapses         
 Distribution difficulties         
Public safety and justice         
 Curfews        
 Enforcement of public-health measures






 
 Public demonstrations N/A (Protocol)n/aNo[Protocol - results not yet available] A review evaluating the risks of COVID-19 transmission at large organized events and mass gatherings is currently being conductedYes (row content last checked on 2021-08-30)ProtocolOtherHooper L, Sadler L, Clark R, Pearce-Smith N, Walters B, Duval D. Reducing the risk of COVID-19 transmission at large organised events and mass gatherings: Protocol for a rapid and living review. PROSPERO. 2021;CRD42021257065.
 Police work in pandemics Not specified
4/9 No Natural disasters and public-health emergencies might affect police-community relations, the mental health of police officers, cause disruption of interorganizational departments, and influence inter-agency cooperation [Review of studies conducted during COVID-19 era and beyond]No Full review Other Laufs J, Waseem Z. Policing in pandemics: A systematic review and best practices for police response to COVID-19. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction. 2020;51:101812. 
 Prisons 2020-07-27
8/10 No Higher rates of infections have been consistently found in congregate settings such as prisons compared to community settingsYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Rapid review Other National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools. What factors increase the risk of COVID-19 outbreaks in congregate living settings? How do outcomes compare to outbreaks in community settings?Hamilton, ON: National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools; 2020. 
  2020-04-216/11NoEvidence shows that prisons are a high-risk setting for potential outbreaks of contagious diseases, and several themes are relevant for addressing them [Review of studies of unclear quality conducted before the COVID-19 pandemic]NoFull reviewOtherBeaudry G, Zhong S, Whiting D, Javid B, Frater J, Fazel S. Managing outbreaks of highly contagious diseases in prisons: A systematic review. SSRN; 2020.
  2021-03-057/9NoEvidence has reported that the mental-health impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and associated infection prevention and control measures on people living in prisons has been overwhelmingly negative [Review of studies of unknown quality]NoFull reviewOtherJohnson L, Gutridge K, Parkes J, Roy A, Plugge E. Scoping review of mental health in prisons through the COVID-19 pandemic. BMJ Open. 2021;11:046547. 
Recreation         
 Public spaces like parks 2020-09-216/9NoWith implications for improving physical and mental wellbeing during and after the COVID-19 pandemic, evidence shows an association between income level and use of green spaces, but there is a lack of knowledge on the type of green spaces that are best for wellbeing [Review of studies of unknown quality]NoFull reviewOtherSpencer LH, Lynch M, Lawrence CL, Edwards RT. A scoping review of how income affects accessing local green space to engage in outdoor physical activity to improve well-being: Implications for post-COVID-19. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020;17(24):9313. 
  2021-02-155/9NoIt is uncertain whether there is an association between COVID-19 spread and the use of recreational skiing facilities due to the lack of robust evidence [Review of studies of unknown quality]NoRapid reviewOtherGianfredi V, Mauer NS, Gentile L, Riccò M, Odone A, Signorelli C. COVID-19 and recreational skiing: Results of a rapid systematic review and possible preventive measures. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021;18(8):4349.
 Private spaces like gyms2020-10-20
7/10No The risk of COVID-19 transmission in indoor physical activity settings, such as gyms and fitness centres is uncertainNo Rapid review Other National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools. Rapid review: What is known about the risk of COVID-19 transmission across different indoor settings in the community such as restaurants and gyms? Hamilton, ON: National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools. 2020; 
Transportation         
 Quarantining travellers2020-06-23
7/10 Yes The effectiveness of quarantining individuals travelling from a country with a declared outbreak is uncertain Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Rapid review Other Nussbaumer-Streit B, Mayr V, Dobrescu AIulia, Chapman A, Persad E, Klerings I, et al. Quarantine alone or in combination with other public health measures to control COVID‐19: A rapid review. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2020;(4)CD013574. 
  2021-03-166/10NoPublic-health measures and non-pharmacological interventions (including travel and border restrictions, and quarantining travellers) were effective in mitigating the spread of COVID-19 [Review of studies of low to moderate quality]NoFull reviewOtherAyouni I, Maatoug J, Dhouib W, Zammit N, Fredj SB, Ghammam R, et al. Effective public health measures to mitigate the spread of COVID-19: A systematic review. BMC Public Health. 2021;21:1015.
 Public transportation rules 2020-07-29
8/11 No A systematic review assessing the effect of physical distancing measures on mental health showed that closures of public transportation appear to be associated with an increase in anxiety levels No Full review Other Castaldelli-Maia JM, Marziali ME, Lu Z, Martins SS. Investigating the effect of national government physical distancing measures on depression and anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic through meta-analysis and meta-regression. Psychological Medicine. 2020;51(6)
 Private transportation restrictions 2020-11-139/10 Yes Whereas the majority of the available evidence is uncertain and coming from the pre-COVID era, studies suggest that restricting cross-border travel may reduce the number of imported and exported cases of COVID-19, and reduce the acceleration of epidemic progressionYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Rapid review Benefits and harmsBurns J, Movsisyan A, Stratil JM, Coenen M, Emmert-Fees KMF, Geffert K, et al. Travel‐related control measures to contain the COVID‐19 pandemic: A rapid review. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.2020;(9):Art. No.: CD013717. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD013717.
  2020-04-01
5/9 No A systematic review assessing international public health responses to the COVID-19, MERS and SARS pandemics found that flight suspensions were one of the common management decisions made by governments No Rapid review Other Tabari P, Amini M, Moghadami M, Moosavi M. International public health responses to COVID-19 outbreak: A rapid review. Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences. 2020;45(3):157-169. 
  2020-06-01
5/9 No Evidence suggests that domestic or international travel bans played an important role in mitigating the spread of infection during the early phases of the pandemic, but that this effectiveness was short lived [Review of observational studies of low quality]No Rapid review Benefits and harms Grepin KA, Ho TL, Liu Z, Marion S, Piper J, Worsnop CZ, et al. Evidence of the effectiveness of travel-related measures during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic: A rapid systematic review. BMJ Global Health. 2021. 
  2020-09-014/9NoAlthough cases of individuals with COVID-19 has been documented as travellers, the number of secondary cases originated by air travellers have been relatively low [Review of studies of unknown quality]NoFull reviewOtherPang JK, Jones SP, Waite LL, Olson NA, Atmur RJ, Cummins JJ. Probability and Estimated Risk of SARS-CoV-2 Transmission in the Air Travel System: A Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis. medRxiv. 2021.
 Tourism planning for 'return to normal'2020-09-014/9NoAlthough cases of individuals with COVID-19 has been documented as travellers, the number of secondary cases originated by air travellers have been relatively low [Review of studies of unknown quality]NoFull reviewOtherPang JK, Jones SP, Waite LL, Olson NA, Atmur RJ, Cummins JJ. Probability and Estimated Risk of SARS-CoV-2 Transmission in the Air Travel System: A Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis. medRxiv. 2021.