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Evidence about clinical management of COVID-19 and pandemic-related health issues

 

We continue to add evidence syntheses to this webpage as we harvest and process weekly updates from ‘high-yield, high quality’ sources of evidence syntheses and as we add new sources. More details are available about the context for the inventory, our approach to developing and maintain it, and tips for using it. Similar webpages are available for evidence about public-health measures, health-system arrangements, and economic and social responses.

Broad and specific decisions Criteria for 'best evidence synthesis' Details to support relevance assessment Additional decision-relevant details Citation
Date of last search Quality (AMSTAR) rating Evidence profile (e.g., GRADE) available Key findings
Living evidence synthesis              Type of synthesis              Type of question
Clinical treatment of COVID-19                
  Assessing most important prognostic factors 
2020-05-12
4/10 No  While age is the most important prognostic factor for estimating the likelihood of hospitalization, severe disease or death among COVID-19 patients, being male, obese and having co-morbidities are also important  Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Rapid review  Other  Norwegian Institute of Public Health. COVID-19 and risk factors for severe disease – A rapid review, 2nd update. Oslo: Norwegian Institute of Public Health; 2020  
 
2020-04-28
7/10 Yes Many clinical and socioeconomic factors provide prognostic information on mortality or severe disease in patients with COVID-19
No (but see protocol in next row by same authors) Full review Other Izcovich A, Ragusa M, Tortosa F, Marzio M, Agnoletti C, Bengolea A, et al. Prognostic Factors for Severity and Mortality in Patients Infected with COVID-19: A Systematic Review. The Lancet 2020. 
    N/A (protocol)
n/a  Yes  [Protocol - no results yet available] A systematic review evaluating the prognostic factors for severity and mortality among COVID-19 patients is currently being conducted Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-11)  Protocol  Other  Izcovich A, Ragusa M, Sanguine V, Tortosa F, Espinosa F, Agnoletti C, Marzio AL, Bengolea A, Saavedra E, Catalano HN, Rada G. Prognostic factors for the severity and mortality in patients infected with COVID-19: A living systematic review protocol. MedRxiv 2020. 
    2020-05-22
8/11 No  Factors that increase fatality risk in COVID-19 patients include being older than 60, male, a smoker, and having COPD, hypertension, diabetes, heart disease or chronic kidney disease  No  Full review  Other  Dorjee K, Kim H. Epidemiological Risk Factors Associated with Death and Severe Disease in Patients Suffering from COVID-19: A Copmrehensive Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. MedRxiv 2020. 
    2020-05-01
8/11  No  For COVID-19 patients in ICU, having co-morbidities (such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, acute kidney injury), suffering from acute respiratory distress syndrome associated with invasive mechanical ventilation, and some lab indicators are significant predictors of poor prognosis  No  Full review  Other  Chang R, Elhusseiny KM, Yeh Y, Sun W. COVID-19 ICU and mechanical ventilation patient characteristics and outcomes - A systematic review and meta-analysis. medRxiv 2020. 
    2020-06-26
7/10  No  Among pregnant women infected with COVID-19, increased maternal age, high body mass index, and pre-existing co-morbidities are factors that may result in severe  disease  Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Full review  Other  Allotey J, Stallings E, Bonet M, Yap M, Chatterjee S, Kew T, et al. Clinical manifestations, risk factors, and maternal and perinatal outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 in pregnancy: Living systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2020;370:m3320.  
    2020-05-17 9/11 No  Being male and 50 years or older substantially increases the risk of death among COVID-19 patients  No  Full review  Other  Islam MS, Barek MA, Aziz MA, Aka TD, Jakaria M. Association of age, sex, comorbidities, and clinical symptoms with the severity and mortality of COVID-19 cases: A meta-analysis with 85 studies and 67299 cases. medRxiv. 2020.  
  Screening and testing for COVID-19                
    See public-health measures                
  Drugs for COVID-19                
    All drugs 2020-12-03 10/11 Yes The effectiveness of most drugs for COVID-19 is uncertain due to important study limitations, but the best-available evidence suggests glucocorticoids probably reduce mechanical ventilation and mortality among severe patients, whereas azithromycin, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, interferon-beta, and tocilizumab may not affect mortality or other patient outcomes
Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Full review Benefits and harms Siemieniuk RA, Bartoszko JJ, Ge L, Zeraatkar D, Izcovich A, Pardo-Hernandez H, et al. Drug treatments for covid-19: Living systematic review and network meta-analysis. BMJ. 2020;370:m2980.
      2021-01-21
8/9  Yes  Synthesis pending  Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Full review  Benefits and harms  COVID NMA. The COVID-NMA initiative
A living mapping and living systematic review of Covid-19 trials. 2020. 
      2020-11-02
10/11 Yes  The effect of most drugs for COVID-19 is currently uncertain, except that remdesivir does not reduce mortality, hydroxychloroquine probably slightly increase mortality and serious adverse events, an that lopinavir/ritonavir probably does not affect mortality, and mechanical ventilation
Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Full review  Benefits and harms  Juul S, Nielsen EE, Feinberg J, Siddiqui F, Jørgensen CK, Barot E, et al. (2020) Interventions for treatment of COVID-19: A living systematic review with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses (The LIVING Project). PLoS Med 17(9): e1003293. 
      N/A (Protocol)
n/a Yes  [Protocol - no results yet available] A network meta-analysis on the comparative effectiveness of pharmacological interventions for COVID-19 is currently being conducted  Yes (row content last updated on 2020-12-07) Protocol Benefits and harms  De Crescenzo F, Amato L, Vecchi S, D'Alo' G, Cruciani F, Mitrova Z, Saulle R, Addis A, Davoli M. Comparative Effectiveness of Pharmacological Interventions for COVID-19: a Living Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis. PROSPERO 2020; CRD42020176914. 
      N/A (Protocol)
n/a No  [Protocol - no results yet available] A network meta-analysis on the comparative effectiveness of pharmacological interventions for COVID-19 is currently being conducted Yes (row content last updated on 2020-12-07) Protocol Benefits and harms  da Rocha A, Pinto A. A Rapid Living Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis on the Pharmacological Interventions for Coronavirus Disease 2019. PROSPERO 2020; CRD42020179818. 
    Anti-virals 2021-01-21
10/11 No  [Baloxavir marboxil] The effects of baloxavir marboxil compared with favipravir are uncertain
Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Full review  Benefits and harms  COVID NMA. Favipiravir vs Baloxavir Marboxil. 2020.
      2021-01-21 10/11 No [Baloxavir marboxil] The effects of baloxavir marboxil compared with lopinavir + ritonavir or darunavir/cobicistat + umifenovir + interferon-a are uncertain
Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Full review  Benefits and harms  COVID NMA. Baloxavir Marboxil vs Lopinavir + Ritonavir or Darunavir/Cobicistat + Umifenovir + Interferon-a. 2020.
      2021-01-21 10/11  No  [Darunavir/cobicistat] The effects of adding darunavir/cobicistat to standard care are uncertain
Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Full review  Benefits and harms  COVID NMA. Darunavir/Cobicistat vs Standard Care. 2020.
      2021-01-21 10/11 No  [Favipiravir] The effects of favipriavir compared with lopinavir + ritonavir or darunavir/cobicistat + umifenovir + interferon-a are uncertain
Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Full review  Benefits and harms  COVID NMA. Favipiravir vs Lopinavir + Ritonavir or Darunavir/Cobicistat + Umifenovir + Interferon-a. 2020.
      2020-12-03
10/11 Yes  [Lopinavir + ritonavir] Lopinavir + ritonavir may not reduce mortality or have an effect in other patient clinical outcome  Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Full review  Benefits and harms  Siemieniuk R, Bartoszko  JJ, Ge L, Zeraatkar D, Izcovich  A, Kum E, et al. Update to living systematic review on drug treatments for covid-19. BMJ. 2020;370:m2980.  
      2021-01-21 10/11 No  [Lopinavir + ritonavir] Adding lopinavir + ritonavir to novaferon and standard care in moderate or severely ill people may increase the viral negative conversion but effects for other outcomes are uncertain
Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Full review  Benefits and harms  COVID NMA. Novaferon + Lopinavir + Ritonavir vs Novaferon. 2020.
      2021-01-21 10/11 Yes  [Lopinavir + ritonavir] Adding lopinavir + ritonavir to standard care may reduce the incidence of clinical improvement, and make little or no difference on mortality
Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Full review  Benefits and harms  COVID NMA. Lopinavir + Ritonavir vs Standard Care. 2020.
      Not specified 8/9  Yes  [Lopinavir + ritonavir] Adding lopinavir + ritonavir to standard care may reduce mortality slightly but the evidence is uncertain
Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Full review  Benefits and harms  Epistemonikos Foundation. Systematic Review: Preliminary Report: Lopinavir/Ritonavir for the Treatment of COVID-19. Santiago, Chile: 2020.
      Not specified
9/11  Yes  [Lopinavir + ritonavir] Adding lopinavir + ritonavir to the standard care may reduce mortality and the risk of requiring mechanical ventilation and may reduce serious adverse events. Any absolute reduction in mortality likely varies across different risk groups but may be less than 1% in low and medium risk populations, and about 5% in a high risk population   Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Full review Benefits and harms Verdugo-Paiva F, Izcovich A, Ragusa M, Rada G. Lopinavir-ritonavir for COVID-19: A living systematic review. Lopinavir-ritonavir para COVID-19: una revisión sistemática viva. Medwave. 2020;20(6):e7967. Published 2020 Jul 15. doi:10.5867/medwave.2020.06.7966 
      2021-01-21 10/11 Yes  [Remdesivir] Remdesivir reduces severe disease progression at 14-28 days but, probably makes little or no difference on mortality and clinical improvement
Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Full review  Benefits and harms  COVID NMA. Remdesivir vs Placebo. 2020.
      2020-12-03 10/11
Yes
[Remdesivir] The effects of remdesivir on patient outcomes are uncertain, but it probably does not increase adverse events
Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Full review
Benefits and harms
Siemieniuk RA, Bartoszko JJ, Ge L, Zeraatkar D, Izcovich A, Pardo-Hernandez H, et al. Drug treatments for covid-19: Living systematic review and network meta-analysis. BMJ. 2020;370:m2980.
      2020-08-31
7/10  Yes [Remdesivir] Remdesivir may reduce mortality and probably improves recovery and reduce adverse events in patients hospitalized with severe COVID-19  Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Rapid review Benefits and harms Wilt TJ, Kaka AS, MacDonald R, Greer N, Obley A, Duan-Porter W. Remdesivir for adults with COVID-19 : A living systematic review for an American college of physicians practice points. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2020.  
      2021-01-21
10/11
Yes
[Ribavirin] The effects of adding ribavarin and interferon-b-1b to liponavir + ritonavir are uncertain
Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Full review
Benefits and harms
COVID NMA. Lopinavir + Ritonavir + Ribavirin + Interferon-b-1b vs Lopinavir + Ritonavir. 2020.
      2021-01-21 10/11 Yes  [Umifenovir] The effects of adding umifenovir to standard care are uncertain
Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Full review  Benefits and harms  COVID NMA. Umifenovir vs Standard Care. 2020.
      2021-01-21 10/11 Yes  [Umifenovir] The benefits of umifenovir compared with favipravir are uncertain while it may increase adverse events
Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Full review Benefits and harms COVID NMA. Favipiravir vs Umifenovir. 2020.
      2021-01-21 10/11 Yes [Umifenovir] Umifenovir may reduce adverse events compared with lopinavir + ritonavir, and its effects on other clinical outcomes are uncertain Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Full review  Benefits and harms  COVID NMA. Umifenovir vs Lopinavir + Ritonavir. 2020. 
      2020-07-05
5/9  No  A systematic review on the cost-effectiveness of antiviral treatments for pandemics found no articles on COVID-19, but modelling studies showed that antivirals may be a cost-effective strategy either as a single intervention or as part of a multifaceted strategy No  Full review  Cost effectiveness  Dawoud DM & Soliman KY. Cost-effectiveness of antiviral treatments for pandemics and outbreaks of respiratory illnesses, including COVID-19: A systematic review of published economic evaluations. Value in Health. 2020;23(11):1409-1422. 
    Other antimicrobials
2020-12-03
10/11  Yes  [Azithromycin] Azithromycin may not reduce mortality or have an effect in other patient clinical outcome  Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Full review  Benefits and harms  Siemieniuk R, Bartoszko  JJ, Ge L, Zeraatkar D, Izcovich  A, Kum E, et al. Update to living systematic review on drug treatments for covid-19. BMJ. 2020;370:m2980.  
      2021-01-21 10/11 No  [Azithromycin] Synthesis pending
Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Full review  Benefits and harms  COVID NMA. Non-randomized Studies: Azithromycin vs Standard Care. 2020.
      2021-01-21 10/11  Yes  [Chloroquine] The effects of adding chloroquine to the standard care are uncertain
Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Full review  Benefits and harms  COVID NMA. Chloroquine vs Standard Care. 2020.
      Not specified
9/10 Yes [Chloroquine][hydroxychloroquine] Adding hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine to standard care in hospitalized patients may not increase the SARS-CoV-2 clearance, whereas it may increase serious adverse events,  although due to very low certainty evidence the benefits of and harms of this comparison cannot be fully evaluated
Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Full review  Benefits and harms  Epistemonikos Foundation. Systematic Review: Preliminary Report: Antimalarials for the Treatment of COVID-19. Santiago, Chile: 2020.
      2020-09-21
8/10  No  [Chloroquine][hydroxychloroquine] It is unlikely that in-hospital use of chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine would have beneficial effects, and the effects of hydroxichloroquine as a prophylactic treatment are uncertain
Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Full review  Benefits and harms  Hernandez AV, Roman YM, Pasupuleti V, Barboza JJ, White CM. Hydroxychloroquine or Chloroquine for Treatment or Prophylaxis of COVID-19: A Living Systematic Review. Ann Intern Med. 2020;10.7326/M20-2496. 
      2021-01-21
10/11 Yes  [Chloroquine] [hydroxychloroquine] The effects of hydroxychloroquine compared to chloroquine are uncertain
Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Full review  Benefits and harms  COVID NMA. Hydroxychloroquine vs Chloroquine. 2020.
      2021-01-21 10/11  No  [Hydroxychloroquine vs placebo/standard care] Hydroxichloroquine probably slightly increases mortality at 14-28 days, and probably makes little or no difference in the incidence of clinical improvement
Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Full review  Benefits and harms  COVID NMA. Hydroxychloroquine vs placebo. 2020.
      2020-12-03 10/11  Yes  [Hydroxychloroquine] hydroxychloroquine may not reduce mortality or mechanical ventilation, and it might increase the risk of adverse events
Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Full review  Benefits and harms  Siemieniuk RA, Bartoszko JJ, Ge L, Zeraatkar D, Izcovich A, Pardo-Hernandez H, et al. Drug treatments for covid-19: Living systematic review and network meta-analysis. BMJ. 2020;370:m2980. 
      2020-07-19
9/11  No  [Hydroxychloroquine][hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin] No benefits were associated with the use of hydroxychloroquine alone or in combination with azithromycin for COVID-19 patients, but the frequency of adverse effects was higher in the hydroxychloroquine group [Review mainly based on observational studies] Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Rapid review  Benefits and harms  Shamshirian A, Hessami A, Heydari K, Alizadeh-Navaei R, Ebrahimzadeh M, Yip G, et al. Hydroxychloroquine Versus COVID-19: A Periodic Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. MedRxiv 2020. 
      2021-01-21
10/11  No  [Hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin] Hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin may increase disease progression and adverse events
Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Full review  Benefits and harms  COVID NMA. Non-randomized Studies: Hydroxychloroquine + Azithromycin vs Standard Care. 2020. 
      2021-01-21 8/9 No [Ivermectin] Synthesis pending
Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Full review  Benefits and harms  COVID NMA. Non-randomized Studies: Ivermectin vs Standard Care. 2020. 
      N/A (Protocol)
n/a  No  [Ivermectin] [Protocol - no resulst yet available] A systematic review on the effectiveness of ivermerctin is currently being conducted  Yes (row content last updated on 2020-12-07) Protocol Benefits and harms  Ortiz-Muñoz L, Rada G. Ivermectin for COVID-19: a Living Systematic Review Protocol. PROSPERO 2020; CRD42020189554. 
    Anti-inflammatories
2021-01-21 7/9  Yes  [Colchicine] The effects of adding colchicine to standard of care are uncertain
Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Full review  Benefits and harms  COVID NMA. Colchicine vs Standard Care. 2020. 
      N/A (Protocol)  n/a  No  [Protocol - no results yet available] A systematic review on the effectiveness of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs  is currently being conducted  Yes (row content last updated on 2020-12-07) Protocol  Benefits and harms  Urrea G, Meza N, Vargas M, Ortiz L, Rada G, Madrid E. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs in Patients with COVID-19: a Living Systematic Review Protocol. PROSPERO 2020; CRD42020179594. 
    Kinase inhibitors  2020-07-30
8/11  No  [Baricitinib] JAK-inhibitors (including baricitinib) may be associated with decreased mortality, fewer ICU admissions, and shorter length of stay in COVID-19 patients [Review of observational studies] No  Full review  Benefits and harms  Walz L, Cohen AJ, Rebaza AP, Vanchieri J, Slade MD, Dela Cruz CS, et al. Janus kinase-inhibitor and Type I interferon ability to produce favorable clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis. medRxiv. 2020. 
   
2021-01-21
10/11 Yes [Ruxolitinib] The effects of ruxolitinib compared with vitamin C are uncertain, although further research is warranted since one very small study appeared to demonstrate a benefit for ruxolitinib for the outcomes of mortality and clinical improvement
Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Full review  Benefits and harms  COVID NMA. Ruxolitinib vs Vitamin C. 2020. 
      2020-07-30
8/11  No  [Ruxolitinib] JAK-inhibitors (including ruxolitinib) may be associated with decreased mortality, fewer ICU admissions, and shorter length of stay in COVID-19 patients [Review of observational studies] No  Full review  Benefits and harms  Walz L, Cohen AJ, Rebaza AP, Vanchieri J, Slade MD, Dela Cruz CS, et al. Janus kinase-inhibitor and Type I interferon ability to produce favorable clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis. medRxiv. 2020. 
    Corticosteroids  2020-06-23
5/9 Yes  [Dexamethasone] One large trial showed that dexamethasone reduced mortality in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, while the reduction might be greatest for ventilated patients
Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Rapid review  Benefits and harms  Helfand M, Wilt TJ, Hilgart J, Arkhipova-Jenkins I, Obley, AJ. Rapid Response: Corticosteroid Therapy for COVID-19 Infection. Washington, DC: Evidence Synthesis Program, Health Services Research and Development Service, Office of Research and Development, Department of Veterans Affairs. VA ESP Project #09-199; 2020 
      2021-01-21
10/11  Yes  [Dexamethasone] Adding dexamethasone to standard of care reduces mortality and disease progression at 14-28 days in moderate to critical COVID-19 patients
Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Full review  Benefits and harms  COVID NMA. Dexamethasone vs Standard Care. 2020. 
      2020-12-03
10/11  Yes  [Glucocorticoids] Glucocorticoids probably reduce mortality, mechanical ventilation, length of ICU stay and hospital duration in patients with severe COVID-19
Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Full review  Benefits and harms  Siemieniuk RA, Bartoszko JJ, Ge L, Zeraatkar D, Izcovich A, Pardo-Hernandez H, et al. Drug treatments for covid-19: Living systematic review and network meta-analysis. BMJ. 2020;370:m2980. 
      2021-01-21
8/9  No  [Methylprednisolone] Synthesis pending
Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Full review  Benefits and harms  COVID NMA. Non-randomized Studies: Methylprednisolone vs Standard Care. 2020. 
    Biologics 2020-06-20
10/11 Yes  [Anakinra] The effects of using anakinra are uncertain  No  Full review  Benefits and harms  Kim M, An M, Kim W, Hwang T. Comparative Efficacy and Safety of Pharmacological Interventions for the Treatment of COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis of Confounder-Adjusted 20212 Hospitalized Patients. MedRxiv 2020. 
      2020-07-01
7/11  No  [Anakinra] One systematic review including several immunomodulatory agents concluded that anakinra is one of only two immunomodulatory agents (the other being tocilizumab) that decrease mortality and reduce COVID-19 clinical symptoms  No  Full review  Benefits and harms  Talaie H, Hosseini SM, Nazari M, et al. Is there any potential management against COVID-19? A systematic review and meta-analysis [published online ahead of print, 2020 Aug 18]. Daru. 2020;1-13. doi:10.1007/s40199-020-00367-4 
      2021-01-07
9/11  Yes  [Anakinra] The effects of anakinra for COVID-19 patients are uncertain  No Full review  Benefits and harms  Khan F, Stewart I, Fabbri L, Moss S, Robinson K, Smyth AR, et al. A systematic review of Anakinra, Sarilumab, Siltuximab with meta-analysis of Tocilizumab for Covid-19. medRxiv. 2020.  
   
2021-01-21
10/11 Yes  [Inferferon β-1a] The evidence for adding interferon β-1a to standard care is of very low certainty therefore the relative effects are uncertain, however, one small study showed substantial benefit for disease progression and mortality suggesting further studies are warranted Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Full review  Benefits and harms  COVID NMA. Interferon β-1a vs standard care. 2020.
      2021-01-21 10/11 Yes [Interferon β-1b] The effects of adding ribavarin and interferon-b-1b to liponavir + ritonavir are uncertain
Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Full review  Benefits and harms  COVID NMA. Lopinavir + Ritonavir + Ribavirin + Interferon-b-1b vs Lopinavir + Ritonavir. 2020. 
      2020-12-03
10/11  Yes  [Interferon β-1b] Interferon β-1b may not reduce mortality or have an effect in other patient clinical outcome  Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Full review  Benefits and harms  Siemieniuk R, Bartoszko  JJ, Ge L, Zeraatkar D, Izcovich  A, Kum E, et al. Update to living systematic review on drug treatments for covid-19. BMJ. 2020;370:m2980.  
      2020-07-01
7/11  No  [Meplazumab] One systematic review comparing several immunomodulatory agents for managing COVID-19 infection concluded that meplazumab is probably not  beneficial  No  Full review  Benefits and harms  Talaie H, Hosseini SM, Nazari M, et al. Is there any potential management against COVID-19? A systematic review and meta-analysis [published online ahead of print, 2020 Aug 18]. Daru. 2020;1-13. doi:10.1007/s40199-020-00367-4 
      2021-01-21
10/11 No [Novaferon] The effects of adding novaferon to lopinavir + ritonavir are uncertain although one small study found a benefit for novaferon and lopinavir +ritonavir for increasing viral clearance
Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Full review  Benefits and harms  COVID NMA. Novaferon + Lopinavir + Ritonavir vs Lopinavir + Ritonavir. 2020. 
      2021-01-21
10/11 No [Novaferon] The effects of novaferon compared with lopinavir + ritinoavir are uncertain
Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Full review  Benefits and harms  COVID NMA. Novaferon vs Lopinavir + Ritonavir. 2020. 
      2021-01-07  9/11 Yes  [Sarilumab] The effects of sarilumab for COVID-19 patients are uncertain  No  Full review  Benefits and harms  Khan F, Stewart I, Fabbri L, Moss S, Robinson K, Smyth AR, et al. A systematic review of Anakinra, Sarilumab, Siltuximab with meta-analysis of Tocilizumab for Covid-19. medRxiv. 2020.  
      2021-01-07
9/11 Yes  [Siltuximab] The effects of siltuximab for COVID-19 patients are uncertain No  Full review  Benefits and harms  Khan F, Stewart I, Fabbri L, Moss S, Robinson K, Smyth AR, et al. A systematic review of Anakinra, Sarilumab, Siltuximab with meta-analysis of Tocilizumab for Covid-19. medRxiv. 2020.  
      2020-12-03
10/11 Yes  [Tocilizumab] Tocilizumab may not reduce mortality or have an effect in other patient clinical outcome  Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Full review  Benefits and harms  Siemieniuk R, Bartoszko  JJ, Ge L, Zeraatkar D, Izcovich  A, Kum E, et al. Update to living systematic review on drug treatments for covid-19. BMJ. 2020;370:m2980.  
      2021-01-21
10/11  No  [Tocilizumab] Tocilizumab may produce little or no difference in mortality, and it may reduce disease progression
Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Full review Benefits and harms COVID NMA. Tocilizumab vs Standard care/Placebo. 2021.
      2020-10-08  10/11  Yes  [Tocilizumab] Tocilizumab probably reduces the risk of mechanical ventilation in hospitalized COVID-19 patients while its effects on mortality are uncertain  Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Full review  Benefits and harms  Tleyjeh IM, Kashour Z, Damlaj M, Riaz M, Tlayjeh H, Altannir M, et al. Efficacy and safety of tocilizumab in COVID-19 patients: A living systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical Microbiology and Infection. 2020:S1198-743X(20)30690-X.  
    Others 2021-01-21
10/11 Yes  [a-Lipoic acid] It is uncertain whether a-Lipoic acid has any differential effects compared with placebo due to very low certainty evidence
Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Full review  Benefits and harms COVID NMA. a-Lipoic Acid vs Placebo. 2020. 
      2020-04-23
5/5  Yes  [Cell-based therapies] No evidence was found on the effects of cell-based therapies for COVID-19
Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Full review  Benefits and harms  Rada G, Corbalan J, Rojas P. Cell-Based Therapies for COVID-19: A Living Systematic Review. MedRxiv 2020.
      2020-06-01
n/a  No  [Chinese herbal medicine] [Protocol - no results yet available] An umbrella review on the effectiveness of several COVID-19 treatments, including chinese herbal medicine, is currently being conducted  Yes (row content last updated on 2020-12-07) Protocol  Benefits and harms  Zhu J, Zheng Y, Wu J. Treatment or Prophylaxis of COVID-19: a Living Umbrella Review. PROSPERO 2020; CRD42020170086. 
      2020-07-27
7/11  No  [Chinese herbal medicine] Lianhua Qingwen combined with conventional drugs may improve symptoms of common pneumonia and COVID-19 pneumonia [Review of studies of variable risk of bias]  No  Full review  Benefits and harms  Hu C, Liang M, Gong F, He B, Zhao D, Zhang G. Efficacy of lianhua qingwen compared with conventional drugs in the treatment of common pneumonia and COVID-19 pneumonia: A meta-analysis. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2020. 
       2020-09-20 8/11 Yes  [Famotidine] The effects of famotidine for COVID-19 patients are uncertain
No Full review Benefits and harms Sethia R, Prasad M, Jagannath S, Nischal N, Soneja M, Garg P, et al. Efficacy of Famotidine for COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. medRxiv. 2020.
      2020-07-27
7/10  No  [Statins] Statins have shown to reduce fatal or severe disease in COVID-19 patients [Review of observational studies of unclear quality] No  Full review  Benefits and harms  Kow CS & Hasan SS. Meta-analysis of effect of statins in patients with COVID-19. The American Journal of Cardiology. 2020.  
      N/A (Protocol)
n/a  No  [Vitamin C] [Protocol - no results yet available] A systematic review on the effectiveness of Vitamin C for the treatment of COVID-19 is currently being conducted Yes (row content last updated on 2020-12-07) Protocol  Benefits and harms  Baladia E, Pizarro A, Rada G. Vitamin C for the Treatment of COVID-19: a Living Systematic Review. PROSPERO 2020; CRD42020181216. 
  Blood products
               
    Convalescent plasma
2021-01-21
10/11 Yes  Adding convalescent plasma to standard care probably may decrease 14-28 day and 7 day all cause mortality, but its effects on other clinical outcomes are uncertain
Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Full review  Benefits and harms  COVID NMA. Convalescent Plasma vs Standard Care. 2020. 
      2020-09-09 8/10 Yes  The effects of convalescent plasma for patients with COVID-19 are uncertain
Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Full review  Benefits and harms  Piechotta V, Chai KL, Valk SJ, Doree C, Monsef I, Wood EM, et al. Convalescent plasma or hyperimmune immunoglobulin for people with COVID-19: a living systematic review. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Jul 10; 
    Hyperimmune immunoglobulin
2021-01-21
10/11 No The effects of immunoglobulin compared to standard care are uncertain
Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Full review  Benefits and harms  COVID NMA. Non-randomized Studies: Intravenous Immunoglobulin vs Standard Care. 2020. 
      2020-09-09
8/10 Yes The effects of hyperimmune immunoglobulin for patients with COVID-19 are uncertain
Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Full review Benefits and harms Piechotta V, Chai KL, Valk SJ, Doree C, Monsef I, Wood EM, et al. Convalescent plasma or hyperimmune immunoglobulin for people with COVID-19: a living systematic review. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Jul 10; 
  Ventilation for COVID-19                
    Invasive ventilation 
2020-05-01
7/10  Yes  A systematic reviews including studies of patients with COVID-19, MERS and SARS, showed that the effects of non invasive ventilation, compared to invasive mechanical ventilation are uncertain Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Full review  Benefits and harms  Schünemann HJ, Khabsa J, Solo K, Khamis AM, Brignardello-Petersen R, El-Harakeh A, et al. Ventilation techniques and risk for transmission of coronavirus disease, including COVID-19: A living systematic review of multiple streams of evidence. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2020;173(3):204-216. 
      2020-04-23
6/10  No  A small number of studies suggests that the mortality of COVID-19 patients under invasive mechanical ventilation is very high, but details of how varying ventilatory protocols and management strategies influence clinical outcomes remains uncertain
No  Full review Other Almeshari MA, Alobaidi NY, Asmri MA, Alhuthail E, Alshehri Z, Alenezi F, et al. Mechanical ventilation utilization in COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis. medRxiv. 2020. 
      2020-05-01
8/11  No  Although significant geographical variations exists, pooled analyses suggest a 43% mortality rate among patients undergoing invasive mechanical ventilation for COVID-19   No  Full review  Other  Chang R, Elhusseiny KM, Yeh Y, Sun W. COVID-19 ICU and mechanical ventilation patient characteristics and outcomes - A systematic review and meta-analysis. medRxiv 2020. 
   
2020-05-21
4/9  No  Low-certainty evidence shows that receiving tracheotomy within 7-10 days of intubation improves the prognosis and reduces the costs for patients under invasive ventilation [Review of observational studies]
No Full review Other Not available 
      2020-05-15
7/9  Yes  It is uncertain whether a higher or lower oxygen target is more beneficial for COVID-19 patients under invasive mechanical ventilation or in an intensive care unit No  Rapid review  Benefits and harms  Cumpstey AF, Oldman AH, Smith AF, Martin D, Grocott MP. Oxygen targets in the intensive care unit during mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory distress syndrome: A rapid review. Cochrane Database Systematic Review. 2020;9:CD013708. 
    Non-invasive ventilation 2020-05-01
7/10  Yes  A systematic review including studies of patients with COVID-19, MERS and SARS showed that non-invasive ventilation, compared with no mechanical ventilation, may reduce mortality, but may increase the risk of COVID-19 transmission to healthcare workers  Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Full review  Benefits and harms  Schünemann HJ, Khabsa J, Solo K, Khamis AM, Brignardello-Petersen R, El-Harakeh A, et al. Ventilation techniques and risk for transmission of coronavirus disease, including COVID-19: A living systematic review of multiple streams of evidence. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2020;173(3):204-216. 
   
2021-01-21
8/9 No Synthesis pending
Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Full review Benefits and harms  COVID NMA. Nonpharmacological Treatments. 2020.
      2020-05-14
9/10  Yes Although no studies were found for COVID-19 patients, indirect evidence shows that high-flow nasal cannual may reduce the need for invasive ventilation, and probably has little or no difference in mortality and length of stay No Rapid review Benefits and harms Agarwal A, Basmaji J, Muttalib F, et al. High-flow nasal cannula for acute hypoxemic respiratory failure in patients with COVID-19: systematic reviews of effectiveness and its risks of aerosolization, dispersion, and infection transmission [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jun 15]. Les canules nasales à haut débit pour le traitement de l’insuffisance respiratoire hypoxémique aiguë chez les patients atteints de la COVID-19: comptes rendus systématiques de l’efficacité et des risques d’aérosolisation, de dispersion et de transmission de l’infection [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jun 15]. Can J Anaesth. 2020;1-32. doi:10.1007/s12630-020-01740-2
    Proning 2020-07-05 5/10 No Awake prone positioning is a feasible option for patients with COVID-19, and can improve oxygenation and respiratory symptoms with little discomfort for the majority of patients [Review of observational studies]
No Full review Benefits and harms Mch SA, Baishya M, Singh A, Khanna P. Effect of awake prone positioning in COVID-19 patients- A systematic review. Trends in Anaesthesia and Critical Care. 2020.
      2020-07-23
8/11  No  Although important heterogeneity was found among studies (given the unstandardized processes for proning), prone position of adults non-intubated patients showed a significant improvement in oxygenation parameters and respiratory rate  No  Full review  Other  Mallikarjuna PR, Ashwin S, Zheng Jie LIM, Alexander Z,  Afsana A, B. Baki B, et al. Prone positioning of non-intubated patients with COVID-19 - A systematic review and meta-analysis. medRxiv. 2020.  
  Other aspects of critical care for COVID-19                
    Management of cardiovascular complications 2020-04-30
9/10 No  The risk of venous thromboembolism in hospitalized COVID-19 patients ranges from 4.4 to 8.2%, with a substantial increase among ICU patients [Review of observational studies] No  Full review  Other  Fontana P, Casini A, Robert-Ebadi H, Glauser F, Righini M, Blondon M. Venous thromboembolism in COVID-19: Systematic review of reported risks and current guidelines. Swiss Medical Weekly. 2020;150:w20301.
      2020-05-08  8/11 No Substantial heterogeneity was found among studies assessing the risk of venous thromboembolism in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, with a greater risk in critical patients, and with some results indicating that patients under pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis reported a lower incidence of venous thromboembolism [Review of observational studies]
No Full review Other Zhang C, Shen L, Le KJ, Pan M-M, Kong L-C, Gu Z-C, et al. Incidence of venous thromboembolism in hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine. 2020;7:151. 
      2020-06-20 10/11 Yes The effects of using anticoagulants in people hospitalized with COVID-19 are currently uncertain, and may increase major bleeding events, compared to patients receiving no treatment
No Rapid review Benefits and harms Flumignan RLG, Tinôco JD, Pascoal PIF, Areias LL, Cossi MS, Fernandes MICD, et al. Prophylactic anticoagulants for people hospitalised with COVID‐19. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2020;10:Art. No.: CD013739. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD013739.
      2020-06-20 10/11 Yes Prophylactic doses of anticoagulants in people hospitalized with COVID-19 may reduce mortality but increase major bleeding events, compared to patients receiving anticoagulants as therapeutic dose
No Rapid review Benefits and harms Flumignan RLG, Tinôco JD, Pascoal PIF, Areias LL, Cossi MS, Fernandes MICD, et al. Prophylactic anticoagulants for people hospitalised with COVID‐19. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2020;10:Art. No.: CD013739. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD013739.
      2020-06-11
8/11  No  The prevalence of venous thromboembolism among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 is high, with ICU patients at increased risk No  Full review  Other  Nopp S, Moik F, Jilma B, Pabinger I, Ay C. Risk of venous thromboembolism in patients with COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Research and Practice in Thrombosis and haemostasis. 2020. 
      Not specified 7/11 No An important incidence of cardiac arrhythmias was found among COVID-19 patients, although substantial heterogeneity among studies was reported [Review of observational studies]
No Full review Other Hamam O, Goda A, Eldalal M, Ussama A, Elmandouh O, Fahmy M, et al. Cardiac arrhythmias in patients with COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis. medRxiv. 2020. 
    Management of renal complications  2020-05-15 7/11 No  The effects of using renal replacement therapy for COVID-19 patients are uncertain
No  Full review Benefits and harms  Abdelrahman Z, Liu Q, Jiang S, Li M, Zhang Y, Wang X. Evaluation of the current therapeutic approaches for COVID-19: A meta-analysis. medRxiv. 2020.
      2020-08-01 8/11  No  Among patients admitted to ICU with COVID-19 one in five required renal replacement therapy for acute kidney injury [Review of observational studies of variable risk of bias]  No  Full review  Other  Tan E, Song J, Deane AM, Plummer MP. Global impact of COVID-19 infection requiring admission to the intensive care unit: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Chest. 2020. 
    Management of respiratory complications
Not Specified
4/9  No  Although using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) seems to be beneficial for select COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, the recuperative effect of this strategy remains uncertain  No  Full review  Other  Haiduc AA, Alom S, Melamed N, Harky A. Role of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in COVID-19: A systematic review. Journal of cardiac surgery. 2020. 
      2020-08-01
8/11 No Substantial heterogeneity was found among studies reporting the incidence of acute pulmonary embolism, but among hospitalized COVID-19 patients the risk seems to be higher for ICU patients [Review of observational studies] No  Full review  Other  Roncon L, Zuin M, Barco S, Valerio L, Zuliani G, Zonzin P, et al. Incidence of acute pulmonary embolism in COVID-19 patients: Systematic review and meta-analysis. European Journal of Internal Medicine. 2020;S0953-6205(20)30349-6.  
      2020-08-01
8/11  No  Among patients admitted to ICU with COVID-19 more than one in 20 required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation [Review of observational studies of variable risk of bias] No  Full review  Other  Tan E, Song J, Deane AM, Plummer MP. Global impact of COVID-19 infection requiring admission to the intensive care unit: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Chest. 2020. 
    Management of other complications
               
  Palliative care under COVID-19 restrictions
               
  Treatment of COVID-19 sequelae
2021-01-21
8/9  No  Synthesis pending
Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Full review  Benefits and harms  COVID NMA. Rehabilitation. 2020. 
    2020-05-27
5/11 No Heart failure, myocardial injury, and cardiar arrhythmias are the most common cardiovascular complications in patients with COVID-19 [Review of observational studies] No Full review Other Kunutsor SK, Laukkanen JA. Cardiovascular complications in COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Infect. 2020;S0163-4453(20)30345-5. 
    2020-09-30
5/10  No  Neurological events might be frequently associated with COVID-19 infection, and given the sparse evidence for rehabilitation interventions, the effects of individual treatments are uncertain Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Rapid review  Other  Ceravolo MG, Arienti C, De Sire A, Andrenelli E, Negrini F, Lazzarini S, et al. Rehabilitation and Covid-19: The Cochrane Rehabilitation 2020 rapid living systematic review. European journal of physical and rehabilitation medicine. 2020. 
    2020-04-18
8/11  No  Whereas the most common neurological symptoms associated with COVID-19 are headaches, dizziness, nausea and vomiting, confusion and myalgias, the most common neurological complications are cerebral infarction or hemorrhage, or cerebral sinus venous thrombosis No  Full review  Other  Collantes MEV, Espiritu AI, Sy MCC, Anlacan VMM, Jamora RDG. Neurological manifestations in COVID-19 infection: A systematic review and meta-analysis. The Canadian journal of neurological sciences. 2020;1-26. 
    2020-04-01
7/11  No  SARS-CoV-2 may cause renal injury that could progress to severe acute kidney injury [Review of observational studies] No  Full review  Other  Yang Q & Yang X. Incidence and risk factors of kidney impairment on patients with COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis. medRxiv. 2020. 
    Not specified
4/9  No  Erythema, urticaria, and rash are the most common dermatological lesions that have been documented in patients with SARS-CoV-2, although its correlation with COVID-19 infection is still uncertain [Review of observational studies] No  Full review  Other  Almutairi A, Alfaleh M, Alasheikh M. Dermatological manifestations in patients with SARS-CoV-2: A systematic review. Cureus. 2020;12(7):e9446. 
    Not specified  7/9 No Audio-vestibular symptoms in COVID-19 patients are not commonly reported in the literature at present [Review mainly based on low quality studies]
No Rapid review Other Almufarrij I, Uus K, Munro KJ. Does coronavirus affect the audio-vestibular system? A rapid systematic review. International Journal of Audiology. 2020; 59(7): 487-449
    2020-07-26
6/9  No  Fatigue, headache and smell/taste disorders are common neurological manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and are similar to the symptoms of SARS-CoV-1 infection [Review of observational studies conducted during COVID-19, MERS and SARS outbreaks]  No  Full review  Other  Almqvist J, Granberg T, Tzortzakakis A, Klironomos S, Kollia E, Öhberg C, et al. Neurological manifestations of coronavirus infections - A systematic review. Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology. 2020; 
    2020-08-01
8/11  No  Evidence with important heterogeneity shows that acute pulmonary embolism could be underdiagnosed in COVID-19 patients, with ICU patients likely to be more affected than patients hospitalized in general wards [Review of observational studies] No  Full review  Other  Roncon L, Zuin M, Barco S, Valerio L, Zuliani G, Zonzin P, et al. Incidence of acute pulmonary embolism in COVID-19 patients: Systematic review and meta-analysis. European Journal of Internal Medicine. 2020;S0953-6205(20)30349-6.  
    2020-07-31
6/9  No  Fever, gastrointestinal and kidney disease symptoms appear to be common among children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, and while critically ill, the majority of patients recover No  Full review  Other  Kaushik A, Gupta S, Sood M, Sharma S, Verma S. A systematic review of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 2020. 
    2020-05-11
4/9  No  Evidence suggests that male fertility may be affected by SARS-CoV-2 infection especially in young children undergoing puberty [Review of observational studies of unknown quality conducted during COVID-19 and SARS outbreaks]  No  Full review  Other  Vishvkarma R & Rajender S. Could SARS-CoV-2 affect male fertility?. Andrologia. 2020;52(9):e13712.  
    2020-09-15
6/9  Yes  Histhopathological biopsies of SARS-CoV-2 infection show that COVID-19 produces cellular destruction, vascular invasion and fibrous formation in lungs, liver and kidneys  No  Full review  Other  Hammoud H, Bendari A, Bendari T, Bougmiza I. Histopathological findings in COVID-19 cases: A systematic review. medRxiv. 2020.  
  Community-based treatment of COVID-19
2020-04-02  4/9  No  Community-centered care including screening, isolating suspected cases, managing mild cases, and providing care for recovered COVID-19 patients can help to reduce pressure on hospitals  No  Rapid review  Other  El-Jardali F, Fadlallah R, Daher N, Jabbour M. K2P COVID-19 Rapid response series: Suppressing COVID-19 epidemic through community-centered care approach. Beirut, Lebanon: Knowledge to Policy (K2P) Center; 2020.  
Clinical management of pandemic-related impacts on health more generally                
  Interrupted management of other types of urgent care 2020-09-06
6/10  No  During the COVID-19 pandemic, out-of-hospital cardiac arrests had delayed  arrival times to emergency medical services, and less time to provide adequate acute care [Review of observational studies of high risk of bias]  No  Full review  Other  Scquizzato T, Landoni G, Paoli A, Lembo R, Fominskiy E, Kuzovlev A, et al. Effects of COVID-19 pandemic on out-of-hospital cardiac arrests: A systematic review. Resuscitation. 2020. 
  Interrupted management or poor self management of chronic conditions  2020-05-15  4/9  No  A review of nine studies focused on 12 COVID-19 patients with chronic dermatologic conditions suggested that ceasing any dermatological treatments using immunomodulators and then re-starting them after the acute stage of COVID-19 infection may be considered to reduce the risk of severe recurrance of the dermatological condition as well as a distrubing cytokine storm  No  Full review  Other  Najar Nobar N, Goodarzi A. Patients with specific skin disorders who are affected by COVID-19: what do experiences say about management strategies? : A systematic review [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jun 18]. Dermatol Ther. 2020;e13867. doi:10.1111/dth.13867 
    2020-05-23
7/11  No  There has been no reported association between any particular oncologic therapy or treatment modality and COVID-19 mortality   No  Full review  Other  Venkatesulu BP, Chandrasekar VT, Girdhar P, Advani P, Sharma A, Elumalai T, et al. A systematic review and meta-analysis of cancer patients affected by a novel coronavirus. medRxiv. 2020. 
    2020-08-06 4/11 No  Adherence to therapies for inflammatory bowel disease decreased internationally during the COVID-19 pandemic, with some regional variation [Review of observational studies]  No Full review  Other Jena A, Singh AK, Kumar-M P, Sharma V, Sebastian S. Systematic review on failure to adhere to IBD therapies during the COVID-19 pandemic: Correct information is crucial. Digestive and Liver Disease. 2020.
    2020-08-10
7/10  No A substantial decrease in healthcare utilization during the pandemic has been found, mainly driven by people with less severe illness who are accessing less care [Review of observational studies] No  Full review  Other  Moynihan R, Sanders S, Michaleff ZA, Scott A, Clark J, To EM, et al. Pandemic impacts on healthcare utilisation: A systematic review. medRxiv. 2020. 
  Routine management considerations for chronic and other existing health conditions
               
    Chronic conditions N/A (Protocol)
n/a  Yes  [Protocol - no results yet available] A review on clinical management of COVID-19 patients with an undergoing treatment for immune-mediated inflammatory disease is currently being conducted  Yes (row content last updated on 2020-12-07) Protocol  Other  Rocha A, Atallah A, Pinto A, Filho C, Reis F, Milby K, et al. COVID-19 and Patients Undergoing Pharmacological Treatments for Immune-Mediated Inflammatory Diseases: Protocol for a Rapid Living Systematic Review. PROSPERO 2020; CRD42020179863. 
    Cancer  2020-05-23
7/11 No A systematic review of observational studies showed no association between receiving a particular cancer therapy and mortality in patients with COVID-19 No Full review Other Venkatesulu BP, Chandrasekar VT, Girdhar P, Advani P, Sharma A, Elumalai T, et al. A systematic review and meta-analysis of cancer patients affected by a novel coronavirus. medRxiv. 2020. 
      2020-04-15
4/9  No  No studies were found about the effects of adjusting dexamethasone-based antiemetic regimens for cancer patients with COVID-19  No  Full review  Other  Grant RC, Rotstein C, Liu G, et al. Reducing dexamethasone antiemetic prophylaxis during the COVID-19 pandemic: recommendations from Ontario, Canada [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jun 30]. Support Care Cancer. 2020;1-6. doi:10.1007/s00520-020-05588-6 
      2020-10-10
8/11 No  Among cancer patients with COVID-19, evidence suggests that chemotherapy may be associated with higher risk of death whereas no association was found for other cancer therapies [Review of observational studies] No  Full review  Other  Park R, Lee SA, Kim SY, de Melo AC, Kasi A. Association of active oncologic treatment and risk of death in cancer patients with COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis of patient data. Acta Oncologica. 2020. 
    Other conditions 2020-05-22  5/9  No  Among solid-organ recipients that are on medications to modulate their inflammatory response, antimetabolites were mostly ceased among COVID-19 patients, whereas corticorsteroids were kept at the same dosage or increased  No  Full review  Other  Moosavi SA, Mashhadiagha A, Motazedian N, Hashemazar A, Hoveidaei AH, Bolignano D. COVID-19 clinical manifestations and treatment strategies among solid-organ recipients: A systematic review of cases. Transplant infectious disease. 2020;e13427. 
  Burn-out and trauma in essential workers                
    Psychosocial support
2020-09-12
9/9  No  Synthesis pending  Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Full review  Benefits and harms  The Depressed Project. Living Systematic Review of Mental Health in COVID-19. Montreal: 2020. 
   
2020-05-25
7/11  No  The prevalence of depression and anxiety among health staff caring for COVID-19 patients may be as high as 30%, although infected personnel may have higher rates of mental illness  No  Full review  Other  Luo M, Guo L, Yu M, Wang H. The psychological and mental impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on medical staff and general public - A systematic review and meta-analysis [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jun 7]. Psychiatry Res. 2020;291:113190. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113190 
       2020-07-31  6/10 No  Health professionals have been one of the populations at greatest risk of suffering major mental-health complications during the COVID-19 pandemic, it is possible that those working in low-resource settings are most at risk, and that a range of remote interventions for addressing these complications are being evaluated [Review of observational studies]  No Rapid review  Other  Soklaridis S, Lin E, Lalani Y, Rodak T, Sockalingam S. Mental health interventions and supports during COVID- 19 and other medical pandemics: A rapid systematic review of the evidence. General Hospital Psychiatry. 2020;66:133-146. 
    Burn-out care
2020-09-12  9/9  No  Synthesis pending  Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Full review  Benefits and harms  The Depressed Project. Living Systematic Review of Mental Health in COVID-19. Montreal: 2020. 
   
2020-05-11
7/10 Yes The prevalence of mental health outcomes among healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic is uncertain No Rapid review Other Muller AE, Hafstad EV, Himmels JPW, Smedslund G, Flottorp S, Stensland S, et al. The mental health impact of the covid-19 pandemic on healthcare workers, and interventions to help them: a rapid systematic review. medRxiv. 2020 Jan 1;2020.07.03.20145607.
      2020-04-15
8/10  No  Substantial impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of health care workers was found, mainly driven by general health concerns and fear [Review of studies conducted during COVID-19, MERS and SARS outbreaks] No  Full review  Other Salazar de Pablo G, Vaquerizo-Serrano J, Catalan A, et al. Impact of coronavirus syndromes on physical and mental health of health care workers: Systematic review and meta-analysis [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jun 25]. J Affect Disord. 2020;275:48-57. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2020.06.022 
    Trauma-informed care 2020-04-01
7/11  No  During the COVID-19 pandemic, health professionals experience a higher level of mental trauma with psychiatric repercussions, compared to the general population  No  Full review  Other  da Silva FCT, Neto MLR. Psychiatric symptomatology associated with depression, anxiety, distress, and insomnia in health professionals working in patients affected by COVID-19: A systematic review with meta-analysis. Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology biological psychiatry. 2020;104:110057. 
  Mental health and additions issues related to the pandemic response                
    Remote management of existing conditions 2020-09-12
9/9  No  Synthesis pending Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Full review  Benefits and harms  The Depressed Project. Living Systematic Review of Mental Health in COVID-19. Montreal: 2020. 
    Remote management of existing conditions  2020-06-17  4/9 No  A scoping review found a number of comercially available digital tools to address psychological symptoms associated with COVID-19, including those that are web-based, mobile and conversational agents, but did not report findings from evaluations of such tools  No Full review  Other  Zhang M, Smith HE. Digital tools to ameliorate psychological symptoms associated with COVID-19: Scoping review. Journal of Medical Internet Research. 2020;22(8):e19706. 
    Management of pandemic-related exacerbations of existing conditions  N/A (Protocol)
n/a No  [Protocol - no results yet] A systematic review on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health symptoms and addictions is currently being conducted  Yes (row content last updated on 2020-12-07)
Protocol  Other  Salanti G, Papakonstantinou T, Cipriani A, Furukawa T, Leucht S. Living Systematic Review on the Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the General Populations' Mental Health, Alcohol/Substance Abuse and Violence. PROSPERO 2020; CRD42020180049. 
       2020-09-10  8/10  Yes The effects of  theCOVID-19 pandemic and similar events on substance use, safety, overdoses and substance-related deaths are uncertain but experience from previous pandemics and similar events suggest that substance users may have reduced access to harm reduction and treatment services, and that the supply of illicit substances may be disrupted  No Rapid review  Other  National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools. Rapid Review Update 1: What is the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on opioid and substance use and related harms? Hamilton, ON: National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools; 2020.
      2020-06-16  8/10  No A rapid review found only cross-sectional studies showing unclear results regarding the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on alcohol use and alcohol-related harms No Rapid review  Other  National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools. Rapid review: What is the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on alcohol use and alcohol-related harms? Hamilton, ON: National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools; 2020.
      2020-08-06 7/10 No A rapid review only identified in-progress studies evaluating the impact of COVID-19 on the mental health and wellbeing of caregivers and families of autistic people with results from these studies pending
Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Rapid review  Other Weiss J, Lee V, Albaum C, Modica PT, Khanlou N, Ahmad F, et al. Impact of COVID-19 on the mental health and wellbeing of caregivers and families of autistic people: A rapid synthesis review. Canadian Institutes of Health Research. 2020. 
   
2020-08-12 5/9 No Although there appears to be high burden of sleep disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic, few interventions have been identified to address this problem
No Full review  Other  Tasnim S, Rahman M, Pawar P, Chi X, Yu Q, Zou L, et al. Epidemiology of sleep disorders during COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic scoping review. medRxiv. 2020.  
    Management of pandemic-related emergence of conditions
2020-09-12 9/9  No Influence of COVID-19 generally, and influence of government responses to pandemic specifically on mental health, vary across different populations, with the impacts on vulnerable populations and on effective interventions to support them an emerging area of interest
Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Full review 
Benefits and harms   The Depressed Project. Living Systematic Review of Mental Health in COVID-19. Montreal: 2020. 
      2020-05-25
7/11  No  The COVID-19 pandemic has a large psychosocial impact on the general public  No  Full review  Other  Luo M, Guo L, Yu M, Wang H. The psychological and mental impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on medical staff and general public - A systematic review and meta-analysis [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jun 7]. Psychiatry Res. 2020;291:113190. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113190 
      N/A (Protocol)  n/a No  [Protocol - no results yet available] A systematic review on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health symptoms and addictions is currently being conducted  Yes (row content last updated on 2020-12-07) Protocol  Other  Salanti G, Papakonstantinou T, Cipriani A, Furukawa T, Leucht S. Living Systematic Review on the Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the General Populations' Mental Health, Alcohol/Substance Abuse and Violence. PROSPERO 2020; CRD42020180049. 
      2020-06-07 8/10 Yes A living review has yet to find studies that measure how the COVID-19 pandemic affects mental health in ways that are associated with domestic violence Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Full review Other  John A, Eyles E, McGuinness LA, Okolie C, Olorisade BK, Schmidt L, Webb RT, Arenseman E, Hawton K, Kapur N, Moran P, O'Connor RC, O'Neill S, Gunnell D, Higgins JPT. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on self-harm and suicidal behaviour: protocol for a living systematic review [version 1; peer review: 1 approved with reservations]. F1000Research 2020;9:644.
      2020-07-01
5/9  No  Depression and anxiety have been the most frequent mental health conditions that pregnant and puerperal women have reported as a result of COVID-19  No  Full review  Other  Vieira LG, Camargo ELS, Schneider G, et al. Repercussions of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Mental Health of Pregnant and Puerperal Women: A Systematic Review. medRxiv 2020. 
       2020-07-29 8/11 No  Meta-regresssion modelling has found that anxiety levels appear to have increased during the COVID-19 pandemic, and that of all of the physical distancing measures implemented, the closure of public transport has been the only intervention found to be directly associated with this increase [Review of observational studies] No Full review  Other  Castaldelli-Maia JM, Marziali ME, Lu Z, Martins SS. Investigating the effect of national government physical distancing measures on depression and anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic through meta-analysis and meta-regression. 2020.
      2020-05-08 8/11  No  A review of prevalence studies suggests that depression rates are extremely variable across countries during the COVID-19 pandemic but that they have probably risen in most, and substantially in some jurisdictions 
No Full review  Other  Bueno-Notivol J, Gracia-Garcia P, Olaya B, Lasheras I, Lopez-Anton R, Santabarbara J. Prevalence of depression during the COVID-19 outbreak: A meta-analysis of community-based studies. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology. 2020. 
      2020-04-22 8/11  No  Persons under quarantine and subject to isolation-containment strategies might be at greater risk of adverse mental and physical health outcomes [Review of observational studies conducted during COVID-19, MERS, SARS and other infectious-diseases outbreaks]
No Full review  Other  Henssler J, Stock F, van Bohemen J, Walter H, Heinz A, Brandt L. Mental health effects of infection containment strategies: Quarantine and isolation - A systematic review and meta-analysis. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience. 2020. 
   
2020-10-31 n/a  No  [Protocol - no results yet available] A systematic review to evaluate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture and relevant interventions as adjunctive therapy for anxiety in COVID-19 is currently being conducted
No Protocol  Benefits and harms   Jia H, Han Z, Zhang K, Tang Q, Sun K, Huang H, et al. Acupuncture and related interventions for anxiety in coronavirus disease 2019: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2020;99(30):e21317.
      2020-04-18 8/11 No  A systematic review of prevalence studies showed that estimates of prevalence in the general population range from 14% to 33% for posttraumatic stress and from 12% to 38% for psychological stress during the COVID-19 pandemic  No Rapid review  Other  Cooke JE, Eirich R, Racine N, Madigan S. Prevalence of posttraumatic and general psychological stress during COVID-19: A rapid review and meta-analysis. Psychiatry research. 2020;292:113347.
      2020-05-07
7/10  No  Low-to-moderate quality evidence showed that the potential negative effects of physical distancing on mental health are exacerbated by quarantine duration, infection fear, inadequate supplies, inadequate information, financial loss, and stigma [Review of syntheses and single studies conducted during the COVID-19 and pre-COVID-19 era]  Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18)  Rapid review  Benefits and harms  National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools. How does physical distancing impact mental health?. Hamilton: National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools; 2020. 
      2020-08-12
5/9  No  Sleep disorders have been found to be prevalent during the COVID-19 pandemic, with being female, younger, a healthcare worker, and experiencing COVID-19-related stress identified as factors associated with higher rates of sleep disorders [Review of observational studies of unknown quality] No  Full review  Other  Tasnim S, Rahman M, Pawar P, Chi X, Yu Q, Zou L, et al. Epidemiology of sleep disorders during COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic scoping review. medRxiv. 2020.  
  Reproductive care for patients with COVID-19                
    Antenatal care 2020-04-30
8/11 No Current evidence suggests the most common signs of COVID-19 in pregnant women include fever, dry cough, sore throat and ground-glass opacities on CT scan, and that the risk of pre-term birth and cesarian section may be higher No Full review Other Matar R, Alrahmani L, Monzer N, et al. Clinical Presentation and Outcomes of Pregnant Women with COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jun 23]. Clin Infect Dis. 2020;ciaa828. doi:10.1093/cid/ciaa828
      2020-04-18
8/10  No  A review of case reports and case series found that most pregnant women with COVID-19 infection developed a mild or moderate severity illness, and while most  babies born to infected women tested negative for infection, a minority were symptomatic irrespective of the result of diagnostic tests No  Full review  Other  Trippella G, Ciarcià M, Ferrari M, et al. COVID-19 in Pregnant Women and Neonates: A Systematic Review of the Literature with Quality Assessment of the Studies. Pathogens. 2020;9(6):E485. Published 2020 Jun 18. doi:10.3390/pathogens9060485 
      N/A (Protocol) n/a No  [Protocol - no results yet available] A systematic review on the symptoms and manifestations of COVID-19 among pregnant women is currently being conducted  Yes (row content last updated on 2020-12-07)
Protocol Other Malouf R, Abbakar N, Burton H, Opondo C. Pregnant Women and their Babies and COVID-19 Pandemic: a Living Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. PROSPERO 2020; CRD42020179989.
      N/A (Protocol)
n/a No  [Protocol - no results yet available] A systematic review on the risks of COVID-19 infection among pregnant women is currently being conducted Yes (row content last updated on 2020-12-07)
Protocol Other Merino L, Meza N, Carrasco C, Bohórquez S, Rada G, Izcovich A. COVID-19 Prognosis in Pregnant Women: a Living Systematic Review. PROSPERO 2020; CRD42020180767. 
      N/A (Protocol)
n/a No  [Protocol - no results yet available] A systematic review to understand the outcomes of pregnancies complicated by COVID-19 is currently being conducted  Yes (row content last updated on 2020-12-07)
Protocol Other Gatta A, Roberta R, Amodeo S, Giuliana S. A Living Systematic Review and Metanalysis of Pregnancies Complicated by COVID -19. PROSPERO 2020; CRD42020185751. 
      2020-06-26
7/10  No  Pregnant women with COVID-19 are less likely to present fever and myalgia, but they might be more likely to be admitted to an intensive care unit compared with non-pregnant women with COVID [Review of observational studies] Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Full review  Other  Allotey J, Stallings E, Bonet M, Yap M, Chatterjee S, Kew T, et al. Clinical manifestations, risk factors, and maternal and perinatal outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 in pregnancy: Living systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2020;370:m3320.  
      2020-08-17
7/9  Yes  The effects of COVID-19 during pregnancy on adverse maternal outcomes are uncertain  Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18)  Rapid review  Other  National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools. Rapid Review Update 1: Is there an increased risk of adverse maternal or fetal outcomes in women infected with COVID-19 during pregnancy? Hamilton, ON: National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools; 2020. 
      2020-07-05
6/11  No  Evidence suggests that anxiety symptoms have increased during the COVID-19 pandemic among pregnant women [Review of observational studies of unknown quality]  No  Full review  Other  Hessami K, Romanelli C, Chiurazzi M, Cozzolino M. COVID-19 pandemic and maternal mental health: A systematic review and meta-analysis. The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine. 2020. 
    Childbirth 2020-04-29
7/11  No  In pregnancies complicated by SARS-CoV-2 infection, maternal deaths have not been reported, but up to 20% of pregnancies may end in pre-term birth, and 85% in a cesarean section  No  Full review  Other  Huntley BJF, Huntley ES, Di Mascio D, Chen T, Berghella V, Chauhan SP. Rates of Maternal and Perinatal Mortality and Vertical Transmission in Pregnancies Complicated by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-Co-V-2) Infection: A Systematic Review. Obstet Gynecol. 2020. 
 
 
      2020-05-04
8/11  No  The incidence of COVID-19 infection in pregnant women and the occurrence of preterm deliveries among pregnant women with COVID-19 is uncertain  No  Full review  Other  de Melo GC, de Araújo KCGM. COVID-19 infection in pregnant women, preterm delivery, birth weight, and vertical transmission: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Cadernos de saude publica. 2020;36(7):e00087320. 
      2020-06-26
7/10  No  Pregnant women with COVID-19 are at higher risk of having preterm birth [Review of observational studies]  Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Full review  Other  Allotey J, Stallings E, Bonet M, Yap M, Chatterjee S, Kew T, et al. Clinical manifestations, risk factors, and maternal and perinatal outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 in pregnancy: Living systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2020;370:m3320.  
      2020-04-16
9/11  No  Current evidence suggests that the rate of preterm labor is higher in pregnant women with COVID-19, compared to normal pregnant women  No Full review Other  Gao YJ, Ye L, Zhang JS, Yin YX, Liu M, Yu HB, et al. Clinical features and outcomes of pregnant women with COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC infectious diseases. 2020;20:564.
      N/A (Protocol)  n/a  No  [Protocol - no results yet available] A systematic review to understand the birth outcomes of pregnancies complicated by COVID-19 is currently being conducted  Yes (row content last updated on 2020-12-07)
Protocol  Other  Gatta A, Roberta R, Amodeo S, Giuliana S. A Living Systematic Review and Metanalysis of Pregnancies Complicated by COVID -19. PROSPERO 2020; CRD42020185751. 
      2020-08-17  7/9  No  The effects of COVID-19 during pregnancy on labour and delivery outcomes are uncertain Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18)
Rapid review Other National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools. Rapid Review Update 1: Is there an increased risk of adverse maternal or fetal outcomes in women infected with COVID-19 during pregnancy? Hamilton, ON: National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools; 2020.
    Post-partum care
N/A (Protocol) n/a  No  [Protocol - no results yet available] A systematic review on the symptoms and manifestations of COVID-19 among women in the postpartum period is currently being conducted
Yes (row content last updated on 2020-12-07) Protocol Other  Malouf R, Abbakar N, Burton H, Opondo C. Pregnant Women and their Babies and COVID-19 Pandemic: a Living Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. PROSPERO 2020; CRD42020179989.
   
2020-07-01  5/9  No  Evidence suggests that the COVID-19 pandemic has had an impact on the mental health of puerperal women, with depression and anxiety being the most frequently reported conditions
No Full review  Other  Vieira LG, Camargo ELS, Schneider G, et al. Repercussions of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Mental Health of Pregnant and Puerperal Women: A Systematic Review. medRxiv 2020. 
      2020-07-05
6/11  No  Evidence suggests that anxiety symptoms have increased during the COVID-19 pandemic among women on perinatal periods [Review of observational studies of unknown quality]  No  Full review  Other  Hessami K, Romanelli C, Chiurazzi M, Cozzolino M. COVID-19 pandemic and maternal mental health: A systematic review and meta-analysis. The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine. 2020. 
    Newborn care 2020-04-18
8/10  No  A review of case reports and case series found that babies born to an infected mother are not at an increased risk of poor neonatal outcomes, and while a minority tested positive for the virus there is still uncertainty around vertical transmission No  Full review  Other  Trippella G, Ciarcià M, Ferrari M, et al. COVID-19 in Pregnant Women and Neonates: A Systematic Review of the Literature with Quality Assessment of the Studies. Pathogens. 2020;9(6):E485. Published 2020 Jun 18. doi:10.3390/pathogens9060485 
      N/A (Protocol)
n/a Yes [Protocol - no results yet available] A systematic review on the transmission of COVID-19 through breast milk is currently being conducted  Yes (row content last updated on 2020-12-07)
Protocol Other  Centeno-Tablante E, Medina-Rivera M, Finkelstein J, Rayco-Solon P, Garcia-Casal M, Ghezzi-Kopel K, et al. Transmission of Novel Coronavirus-19 through Breast Milk and Breastfeeding. A Living Systematic Review of the Evidence. PROSPERO 2020; CRD42020178664. 
      N/A (Protocol)
n/a
No  [Protocol - no results yet available] A systematic review on the safety of COVID-19 medications for breastfeeding women is currently being conducted  Yes (row content last updated on 2020-12-07)
Protocol  Benefits and harms  Chang Y, Fisher J, Sutcliffe P, Hillman S, Chien L, Cheema E, et al. The Safety of Prescription-Only Medications for Breastfeeding in Women who Took or were Administered them for Diagnosed or Suspected COVID-19 infection: a living systematic review. PROSPERO 2020; CRD42020187101. 
      N/A (Protocol)
n/a
No  [Protocol - no results yet available] A systematic review identifying the factors associated with initiation, continuation and breastfeeding exclusivity is currently being conducted  Yes (row content last updated on 2020-12-07)
Protocol  Other  Fisher J, Chang Y, Chien L, Hillman S, Sutcliffe P, Bick D. Factors that are Associated with Breastfeeding Initiation, Duration and Exclusivity of Breastfeeding During the SARS-Cov-2 Pandemic? A Living Systematic Review. PROSPERO 2020; CRD42020187235. 
      2020-05-04
8/11  No  The effect of COVID-19 infection in pregnant women on the risk of preterm deliveries is uncertain, and the possibillity of vertical transmission to newborns cannot be ruled out  No  Full review  Other  de Melo GC, de Araújo KCGM. COVID-19 infection in pregnant women, preterm delivery, birth weight, and vertical transmission: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Cadernos de saude publica. 2020;36(7):e00087320. 
      2020-06-26
7/10  No  Neonates delivered by a mother infected with COVID-19 during pregnancy are more likely to be admitted to a neonatal unit [Review of observational studies] Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18) Full review  Other  Allotey J, Stallings E, Bonet M, Yap M, Chatterjee S, Kew T, et al. Clinical manifestations, risk factors, and maternal and perinatal outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 in pregnancy: Living systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2020;370:m3320.  
      2020-04-30
7/11  No  No studies were found showing vertical maternal-fetal transmission of COVID-19 [Review of observational studies conducted during COVID-19, MERS, and SARS outbreaks]  No  Full review  Other  Diriba K, Awulachew E, Getu E. The effect of coronavirus infection (SARS-CoV-2, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV) during pregnancy and the possibility of vertical maternal-fetal transmission: A systematic review and meta-analysis. European Journal of Medical Research. 2020;25:39. 
      2020-08-17
7/9  Yes  The effects of COVID-19 during pregnancy on fetal and neonatal outcomes are uncertain  Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18)
Rapid review Other  National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools. Rapid Review Update 1: Is there an increased risk of adverse maternal or fetal outcomes in women infected with COVID-19 during pregnancy? Hamilton, ON: National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools; 2020. 
      2020-05-18
5/9  No  Whereas low probability of vertical transmission in infants has been reported, antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 were frequently detected among infants that tested negative for COVID-19  Yes (row content last updated on 2021-01-18)
Full review  Other  Bwire GM, Njiro BJ, Mwakawanga DL, Sabas D, Sunguya BF. Possible vertical transmission and antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 among infants born to mothers with COVID-19: A living systematic review. Journal of Medical Virology. 2020. 
    Contraception                
    Termination services                
  Domestic and gender-based violence related to the pandemic response                
    See economic and social responses
               
Health promotion more generally                
  Eating healthy food N/A (Protocol)
n/a  No  [Protocol - no results yet available] A systematic review on the relationship between lifestyle factors (including dietary habits) and COVID-19 infection is currently being conducted  Yes (row content last updated on 2020-12-07)
Protocol  Other  Wesselius A, der Ven E, Bongaerts B, Dijksma I, Ament S, Falahi F, et al. Lifestyle Factors and COVID-19: a Rapid and Living Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. PROSPERO 2020; CRD42020181902. 
    Not specified
4/9  No  Although the role of nutrients on the immune system has been well documented, no clear evidence has shown an effect of nutrients on coronaviruses  No  Full review  Other  BourBour F, Dahka SM, Gholamalizadeh M, Akbari ME, Shadnoush M, Haghighi M, et al. Nutrients in prevention, treatment, and management of viral infections; Special focus on coronavirus. Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry. 2020. 
  Avoiding or minimizing unhealthy habits like smoking or excessive alcohol intake N/A (Protocol)
n/a No  [Protocol - no results yet available] A systematic review on the relationship between lifestyle factors (including smoking) and COVID-19 infection is currently being conducted  Yes (row content last updated on 2020-12-07) Protocol  Other  Wesselius A, der Ven E, Bongaerts B, Dijksma I, Ament S, Falahi F, et al. Lifestyle Factors and COVID-19: a Rapid and Living Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. PROSPERO 2020; CRD42020181902. 
  Remaining physically active N/A (Protocol) n/a No  [Protocol - no results yet available] A systematic review on the relationship between lifestyle factors (including physical activity) and COVID-19 infection is currently being conducted  Yes (row content last updated on 2020-12-07)
Protocol  Other  Wesselius A, der Ven E, Bongaerts B, Dijksma I, Ament S, Falahi F, et al. Lifestyle Factors and COVID-19: a Rapid and Living Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. PROSPERO 2020; CRD42020181902. 
  Staying social connected 2020-04-07
7/10  Yes  The effects of using of videoconferencing interventions to reduce loneliness in older adults are uncertain  No  Full review  Benefits and harms  Noone C, McSharry J, Smalle M, et al. Video Calls for Reducing Social Isolation and Loneliness in Older People: a Rapid Review. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2020;5:CD013632. 
  Finding trustworthy information                

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