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Evidence about clinical management of COVID-19 and pandemic-related health issues (under construction)

 

We continue to add evidence syntheses to this webpage as we harvest and process weekly updates from ‘high-yield, high quality’ sources of evidence syntheses and as we add new sources. More details are available about the context for the inventory, our approach to developing and maintain it, and tips for using it. Similar webpages are available for evidence about public-health measures, health-system arrangements, and economic and social responses.

Broad and specific decisions Criteria for 'best evidence synthesis' Details to support relevance assessment Additional decision-relevant details Citation
Date of last search Quality (AMSTAR) rating Evidence profile (e.g., GRADE) available Key findings
Living evidence synthesis              Type of synthesis              Type of question
Clinical treatment of COVID-19                
  Assessing most important prognostic factors  2020-04-28
7/10 Yes Many clinical and socioeconomic factors provide prognostic information on mortality or severe disease in patients with COVID-19
No Full review Other Izcovich A, Ragusa M, Tortosa F, Marzio M, Agnoletti C, Bengolea A, et al. Prognostic Factors for Severity and Mortality in Patients Infected with COVID-19: A Systematic Review. The Lancet 2020. 
    2020-05-22
8/11 No  Factors that increase fatality risk in COVID-19 patients include being older than 60, male, a smoker, and having COPD, hypertension, diabetes, heart disease or chronic kidney disease  No  Full review  Other  Dorjee K, Kim H. Epidemiological Risk Factors Associated with Death and Severe Disease in Patients Suffering from COVID-19: A Copmrehensive Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. MedRxiv 2020. 
    2020-04-05
8/11  No  Being male and older were associated with a poor prognosis for COVID-19 patients in general, with chronic kidney disease the most important prognostic factor for death, and COPD the most important prognostic factor for disease severity  No  Full review  Other  Fang X, Li S, Yu H, et al. Epidemiological, comorbidity factors with severity and prognosis of COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Aging (Albany NY). 2020;12(13):12493-12503. doi:10.18632/aging.103579 
  Screening and testing for COVID-19                
    See public-health measures                
  Drugs for COVID-19                
    All drugs 2020-09-11 8/11 Yes Whereas the effectiveness of most of the drugs for COVID-19 is uncertain due to important study limitations, dexamethasone is the only intervention that probably reduces mortality and mechanical ventilation
Yes (row content last updated on 2020-10-20) Full review Benefits and harms Siemieniuk RA, Bartoszko JJ, Ge L, Zeraatkar D, Izcovich A, Pardo-Hernandez H, et al. Drug treatments for covid-19: Living systematic review and network meta-analysis. BMJ. 2020;370:m2980.
      2020-10-16
8/9  Yes  Synthesis pending  Yes (row content last updated on 2020-10-20)
Full review  Benefits and harms  COVID NMA. The COVID-NMA initiative
A living mapping and living systematic review of Covid-19 trials. 2020. 
      2020-08-07
8/10 Yes  Synthesis pending
Yes (row content last updated on 2020-10-20)
Full review  Benefits and harms  Juul S, Nielsen EE, Feinberg J, Siddiqui F, Jørgensen CK, Barot E, et al. (2020) Interventions for treatment of COVID-19: A living systematic review with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses (The LIVING Project). PLoS Med 17(9): e1003293. 
    Anti-virals 2020-07-24
8/9 No  [Baloxavir marboxil] The effects of baloxavir marboxil compared with favipravir are uncertain
Yes (row content last updated on 2020-07-25)  Full review  Benefits and harms  COVID NMA. Favipiravir vs Baloxavir Marboxil. 2020.
      2020-07-24  8/9 No [Baloxavir marboxil] The effects of baloxavir marboxil compared with lopinavir + ritonavir or darunavir/cobicistat + umifenovir + interferon-a are uncertain
Yes (row content last updated on 2020-07-25) Full review  Benefits and harms  COVID NMA. Baloxavir Marboxil vs Lopinavir + Ritonavir or Darunavir/Cobicistat + Umifenovir + Interferon-a. 2020.
      2020-05-08 7/9  No  [Darunavir/cobicistat] The effects of adding darunavir/cobicistat to standard care are uncertain
Yes (row content last updated on 2020-08-25)  Full review  Benefits and harms  COVID NMA. Darunavir/Cobicistat vs Standard Care. 2020.
      2020-07-24  8/9 No  [Favipiravir] The effects of favipriavir compared with lopinavir + ritonavir or darunavir/cobicistat + umifenovir + interferon-a are uncertain
Yes (row content last updated on 2020-07-25)  Full review  Benefits and harms  COVID NMA. Favipiravir vs Lopinavir + Ritonavir or Darunavir/Cobicistat + Umifenovir + Interferon-a. 2020.
      2020-07-24  8/9 No  [Lopinavir + ritonavir] Adding lopinavir + ritonavir to novaferon and standard care in moderate or severely ill people may increase the viral negative conversion but effects for other outcomes are uncertain
Yes (row content last updated on 2020-07-25)  Full review  Benefits and harms  COVID NMA. Novaferon + Lopinavir + Ritonavir vs Novaferon. 2020.
      2020-07-24  9/10 Yes  [Lopinavir + ritonavir] Adding lopinavir + ritonavir to standard care may make little or no difference in terms of disease progression or mortality but the evidence is of low or very low certainty
Yes (row content last updated on 2020-07-25)  Full review  Benefits and harms  COVID NMA. Lopinavir + Ritonavir vs Standard Care. 2020.
      Not specified 8/9  Yes  [Lopinavir + ritonavir] Adding lopinavir + ritonavir to standard care may reduce mortality slightly but the evidence is uncertain
Yes (row content last updated on 2020-07-25)  Full review  Benefits and harms  Epistemonikos Foundation. Systematic Review: Preliminary Report: Lopinavir/Ritonavir for the Treatment of COVID-19. Santiago, Chile: 2020.
      2020-05-24
9/11  Yes  [Lopinavir + ritonavir] Adding lopinavir + ritonavir to the standard care may reduce mortality and the risk of requiring mechanical ventilation and may reduce serious adverse events. Any absolute reduction in mortality likely varies across different risk groups but may be less than 1% in low and medium risk populations, and about 5% in a high risk population   Yes (row content last updated on 2020-09-18)
Full review Benefits and harms Verdugo-Paiva F, Izcovich A, Ragusa M, Rada G. Lopinavir-ritonavir for COVID-19: A living systematic review. Lopinavir-ritonavir para COVID-19: una revisión sistemática viva. Medwave. 2020;20(6):e7967. Published 2020 Jul 15. doi:10.5867/medwave.2020.06.7966 
      2020-06-20 10/11 Yes  [Remdesivir] Adding remdesivir to standard care significantly reduces the risk of ICU admission
No  Full review  Benefits and harms  Kim M, An M, Kim W, Hwang T. Comparative Efficacy and Safety of Pharmacological Interventions for the Treatment of COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis of Confounder-Adjusted 20212 Hospitalized Patients. MedRxiv 2020.
      2020-07-24  8/10 Yes  [Remdesivir] Remdesivir added to standard care probably reduces severe disease progression at 14-28 days but effect on survival is uncertain
Yes (row content last updated on 2020-07-25)  Full review  Benefits and harms  COVID NMA. Remdesivir vs Placebo. 2020.
      2020-09-11  8/11
Yes
[Remdesivir] Remdesivir probably reduces time to resolution of COVID-19 symptoms and the duration of mechanical ventilation, but its effects on mortality are uncertain
Yes (row content last updated on 2020-10-20) Full review
Benefits and harms
Siemieniuk RA, Bartoszko JJ, Ge L, Zeraatkar D, Izcovich A, Pardo-Hernandez H, et al. Drug treatments for covid-19: Living systematic review and network meta-analysis. BMJ. 2020;370:m2980.
      2020-07-24
8/9
Yes
[Ribavirin] The effects of adding ribavarin and interferon-b-1b to liponavir + ritonavir are uncertain
Yes (row content last updated on 2020-07-25)  Full review
Benefits and harms
COVID NMA. Lopinavir + Ritonavir + Ribavirin + Interferon-b-1b vs Lopinavir + Ritonavir. 2020.
      2020-04-30 8/10  Yes  [Rivabirin] The effects and safety of rivabirin are uncertain  No  Full review  Benefits and harms  Hernandez A V., Roman YM, Pasupuleti V, Barboza JJ, White CM. Hydroxychloroquine or Chloroquine for Treatment or Prophylaxis of COVID-19: A Living Systematic Review. Ann Intern Med. 2020 May 27;M20-2496.  
      2020-07-24 8/9  Yes  [Umifenovir] The effects of adding umifenovir to standard care are uncertain
Yes (row content last updated on 2020-07-25)  Full review  Benefits and harms  COVID NMA. Umifenovir vs Standard Care. 2020.
      2020-07-24
8/9 Yes  [Umifenovir] The effects of umifenovir compared with favipravir are uncertain
Yes (row content last updated on 2020-07-25) Full review Benefits and harms COVID NMA. Favipiravir vs Umifenovir. 2020.
      2020-07-24
8/9 Yes [Umifenovir] The effects of umifenovir compared with lopinavir + ritonavir are uncertain (Last update 25 Jul 2020) Yes (row content last updated on 2020-07-25)  Full review  Benefits and harms  COVID NMA. Umifenovir vs Lopinavir + Ritonavir. 2020. 
      2020-06-01
9/10 No [Umifenovir] Low quality evidence, mainly from observational studies, suggests that umifenovir increased negative rate PCR testing 14 days after onset of COVID-19 symptoms, but it was not associated with patient-important clinical improvements
No Full review Benefits and harms Huang D, Yu H, Wang T, Yang H, Yao R, Liang Z. Efficacy and safety of umifenovir for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Medical Virology. 2020.
    Other antimicrobials  2020-05-08 7/9 No  [Azithromycin] The evidence profile on azythromycin vs standard care is not currently available (which is likely because they are updating it, based on new study results)
Yes (row content last updated on 2020-07-25)  Full review  Benefits and harms  COVID NMA. Non-randomized Studies: Azithromycin vs Standard Care. 2020.
      2020-05-08 7/9  Yes  [Chloroquine] The effects of adding chloroquine to the standard care are uncertain
Yes (row content last updated on 2020-08-25)  Full review  Benefits and harms  COVID NMA. Chloroquine vs Standard Care. 2020.
      Not specified
9/10 Yes [Chloroquine][Hydroxychloroquine] Adding hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine to standard care in hospitalized patients may not increase the SARS-CoV-2 clearance, whereas it may increase serious adverse events,  although due to very low certainty evidence the benefits of and harms of this comparison cannot be fully evaluated
Yes (row content last updated on 2020-07-25)  Full review  Benefits and harms  Epistemonikos Foundation. Systematic Review: Preliminary Report: Antimalarials for the Treatment of COVID-19. Santiago, Chile: 2020.
      2020-05-08
8/10  No  [Chloroquine][Hydroxychloroquine] No evidence was found on the effects of hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine as a prophylactic treatment for COVID-19, although studies conducted in other populations show no difference compared to conventional therapy, raising some important concerns about their safety (especially for chloroquine treatment)
Yes (row content last updated on 2020-07-25)  Full review  Benefits and harms  Hernandez AV, Roman YM, Pasupuleti V, Barboza JJ, White CM. Hydroxychloroquine or Chloroquine for Treatment or Prophylaxis of COVID-19: A Living Systematic Review. Ann Intern Med. 2020;10.7326/M20-2496. 
      2020-05-08
7/9  Yes  [Chloroquine] [Hydroxychloroquine] The effects of hydroxychloroquine compared to chloroquine are uncertain
Yes (row content last updated on 2020-08-25) Full review  Benefits and harms  COVID NMA. Hydroxychloroquine vs Chloroquine. 2020.
      2020-07-24 8/10  No  [Hydroxychloroquine vs placebo] Synthesis pending
Yes (row content last updated on 2020-07-25)  Full review  Benefits and harms  COVID NMA. Hydroxychloroquine vs placebo. 2020.
      2020-07-24 8/10 Yes [Hydroxychloroquine vs standard care] Synthesis pending
Yes (row content last updated on 2020-07-25) Full review Benefits and harms COVID NMA. Hydroxychloroquine vs Standard Care. 2020. 
      2020-09-11 8/11  Yes  [Hydroxychloroquine] While four recently published randomized trials have yet to be analyzed in this review, their results and existing evidence suggests hydroxychloroquine might not reduce mortality, and might increase the risk of adverse events
Yes (row content last updated on 2020-10-20) Full review  Benefits and harms  Siemieniuk RA, Bartoszko JJ, Ge L, Zeraatkar D, Izcovich A, Pardo-Hernandez H, et al. Drug treatments for covid-19: Living systematic review and network meta-analysis. BMJ. 2020;370:m2980. 
      2020-05-25
9/11  No  [Hydroxychloroquine][Hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin] A systematic review of mainly observational studies showed no clinical benefits associated with the use of hydroxychloroquine alone, or in combination with azithromycin for COVID-19 patients
Yes (row content last updated on 2020-08-25)  Rapid review  Benefits and harms  Shamshirian A, Hessami A, Heydari K, Alizadeh-Navaei R, Ebrahimzadeh M, Yip G, et al. Hydroxychloroquine Versus COVID-19: A Periodic Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. MedRxiv 2020. 
      2020-06-20  10/11  Yes  [Hydroxychloroquine][Hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin] Moderate-strength evidence suggests hydroxychloroquine may promote viral clearance, but no evidence supports its effects on mortality or progression of the disease, whereas its combination with azythromicyn may produce important adverse events in vulnerable populations  No  Full review  Benefits and harms  Kim M, An M, Kim W, Hwang T. Comparative Efficacy and Safety of Pharmacological Interventions for the Treatment of COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis of Confounder-Adjusted 20212 Hospitalized Patients. MedRxiv 2020. 
      2020-05-08
7/9  No  [Hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin] Synthesis pending
Yes (row content last updated on 2020-08-25)  Full review  Benefits and harms  COVID NMA. Non-randomized Studies: Hydroxychloroquine + Azithromycin vs Standard Care. 2020. 
      2020-05-08
7/9 No [Ivermectin] Synthesis pending
Yes (row content last updated on 2020-08-25) Full review  Benefits and harms  COVID NMA. Non-randomized Studies: Ivermectin vs Standard Care. 2020. 
    Anti-inflammatories
2020-05-08
7/9  Yes  [Colchicine] The effects of adding colchicine to standard of care are uncertain
Yes (row content last updated on 2020-08-25) Full review  Benefits and harms  COVID NMA. Colchicine vs Standard Care. 2020. 
    Kinase inhibitors 2020-07-24
8/9 Yes [Ruxolitinib] The effects of ruxolitinib compared with vitamin C are uncertain, although further research is warranted since one very small study appeared to demonstrate a benefit for ruxolitinib for the outcomes of mortality and clinical improvement
Yes (row content last updated on 2020-07-25) Full review  Benefits and harms  COVID NMA. Ruxolitinib vs Vitamin C. 2020. 
    Corticosteroids  2020-06-23
5/9 Yes  [Dexamethasone] One large trial showed that dexamethasone reduced mortality in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, while the reduction might be greatest for ventilated patients
Yes (row content last updated on 2020-07-25) Rapid review  Benefits and harms  Helfand M, Wilt TJ, Hilgart J, Arkhipova-Jenkins I, Obley, AJ. Rapid Response: Corticosteroid Therapy for COVID-19 Infection. Washington, DC: Evidence Synthesis Program, Health Services Research and Development Service, Office of Research and Development, Department of Veterans Affairs. VA ESP Project #09-199; 2020 
      2020-05-08
7/9  Yes  [Dexamethasone] Adding dexamethasone to standard of care probably reduces mortality in moderate to critical COVID-19 patients
Yes (row content last updated on 2020-08-25)  Full review  Benefits and harms  COVID NMA. Dexamethasone vs Standard Care. 2020. 
      2020-09-11
8/11  Yes  [Dexamethasone] To date, dexamethasone is the only intervention that has been shown to reduce mortality and mechanical ventilation in patients with moderate to critical COVID-19
Yes (row content last updated on 2020-10-20) Full review  Benefits and harms  Siemieniuk RA, Bartoszko JJ, Ge L, Zeraatkar D, Izcovich A, Pardo-Hernandez H, et al. Drug treatments for covid-19: Living systematic review and network meta-analysis. BMJ. 2020;370:m2980. 
      2020-05-08
7/9  No  [Methylprednisolone] Synthesis pending
Yes (row content last updated on 2020-08-25)  Full review  Benefits and harms  COVID NMA. Non-randomized Studies: Methylprednisolone vs Standard Care. 2020. 
    Biologics 2020-06-20
10/11 Yes  [Anakinra] The effects of using anakinra are uncertain  No  Full review  Benefits and harms  Kim M, An M, Kim W, Hwang T. Comparative Efficacy and Safety of Pharmacological Interventions for the Treatment of COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis of Confounder-Adjusted 20212 Hospitalized Patients. MedRxiv 2020. 
   
2020-07-24
8/9 Yes  [Inferferon β-1a] The evidence for adding interferon β-1a to standard care is of very low certainty therefore the relative effects are uncertain, however, one small study showed substantial benefit for disease progression and mortality suggesting further studies are warranted Yes (row content last updated on 2020-07-25)  Full review  Benefits and harms  COVID NMA. Interferon β-1a vs standard care. 2020.
      2020-04-30
8/10  Yes  [Interferon α] [Interferon β] The effects of using interferon α or interferon β are uncertain  No Full review Benefits and harms  Liu W, Zhou P, Chen K, Ye Z, Liu F, Li X, et al. Efficacy and safety of antiviral treatment for COVID-19 from evidence in studies of SARS-CoV-2 and other acute viral infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Can Med Assoc J. 2020 Jul 6;192(27):E734–44. 
      2020-07-24 8/9 Yes [Interferon β-1b] The effects of adding ribavarin and interferon-b-1b to liponavir + ritonavir are uncertain
Yes (row content last updated on 2020-07-25)  Full review  Benefits and harms  COVID NMA. Lopinavir + Ritonavir + Ribavirin + Interferon-b-1b vs Lopinavir + Ritonavir. 2020. 
      2020-07-24
8/9 No [Novaferon] The effects of adding novaferon to lopinavir + ritonavir are uncertain although one small study found a benefit for novaferon and lopinavir +ritonavir for increasing viral clearance
Yes (row content last updated on 2020-07-25) Full review  Benefits and harms  COVID NMA. Novaferon + Lopinavir + Ritonavir vs Lopinavir + Ritonavir. 2020. 
      2020-07-24
8/9 No [Novaferon] The effects of novaferon compared with lopinavir + ritinoavir are uncertain
Yes (row content last updated on 2020-07-25)  Full review  Benefits and harms  COVID NMA. Novaferon vs Lopinavir + Ritonavir. 2020. 
      2020-06-20
Yes  [Tocilizumab] Tocilizumab may reduce mortality for moderate to severe patients in both ICU and non-ICU settings, and may reduce the progression to severe pneumonia
No  Full review  Benefits and harms  Kim M, An M, Kim W, Hwang T. Comparative Efficacy and Safety of Pharmacological Interventions for the Treatment of COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis of Confounder-Adjusted 20212 Hospitalized Patients. MedRxiv 2020. 
      2020-05-08
7/9  No  [Tocilizumab] Synthesis pending
Yes (row content last updated on 2020-08-25) Full review Benefits and harms COVID NMA. Non-randomized Studies: Tocilizumab vs Standard Care. 2020. 
    Others 2020-07-24
8/9 Yes  [a-Lipoic acid] It is uncertain whether a-Lipoic acid has any differential effects compared with placebo due to very low certainty evidence
Yes (row content last updated on 2020-07-25)  Full review  Benefits and harms COVID NMA. a-Lipoic Acid vs Placebo. 2020. 
      2020-04-22 5/9  Yes  [Anticoagulants] The effects of using antithrombotic therapies for COVID-19 patients are uncertain although thromboprophylaxis should be used following common guidance on critically ill hospitalized patients No Rapid review  Benefits and harms  Maldonado E, Tao D, Mackey K. Antithrombotic Therapies in COVID-19 Disease: a Systematic Review [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jun 17]. J Gen Intern Med. 2020;1-9. doi:10.1007/s11606-020-05906-y
      2020-04-23
5/5  Yes  [Cell-based therapies] No evidence was found on the effects of cell-based therapies for COVID-19
Yes (row content last updated on 2020-07-25)  Full review  Benefits and harms  Rada G, Corbalan J, Rojas P. Cell-Based Therapies for COVID-19: A Living Systematic Review. MedRxiv 2020.
      2020-06-21
9/11 No  [Chinese herbal medicine] A systematic review of small trials has shown that the use of Chinese herbal medicine may lead to clinical improvements and enhance viral conversion among COVID-19 patients, with no relevant adverse events reported
No  Full review  Benefits and harms  Xiong X, Wang P, Su K, Cho WC, Xing Y. Chinese herbal medicine for coronavirus disease 2019: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Pharmacological Research. 2020;160:105056. 
      2020-05-12
7/10  No  [Herbal medicine] A systematic review of unblinded studies focused on patient-reported outcomes found evidence that adding herbal medicines to western medicine improved outcomes, although the evidence is likely to be of low or very low certainty. In addition, it was not clear whether various forms of herbal medicine differed in their effects No  Full review  Benefits and harms  Ang L, Song E, Lee HW, Lee MS. Herbal medicine for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2020;9(5):1583. 
  Blood products
               
    Convalescent plasma
2020-07-24
8/9 Yes  The evidence for adding convalescent plasma to standard care is uncertain
Yes (row content last updated on 2020-07-25)  Full review  Benefits and harms  COVID NMA. Convalescent Plasma vs Standard Care. 2020. 
      2020-06-20
10/11 Yes  The use of convalescent plasma may promote viral clearance, however it may not have an effect on mortality or disease progression  No  Full review  Benefits and harms  Kim M, An M, Kim W, Hwang T. Comparative Efficacy and Safety of Pharmacological Interventions for the Treatment of COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis of Confounder-Adjusted 20212 Hospitalized Patients. MedRxiv 2020. 
      2020-06-04
9/9  Yes  The effects of convalescent plasma for patients with COVID-19 are uncertain
Yes (row content last updated on 2020-07-25)  Full review  Benefits and harms  Piechotta V, Chai KL, Valk SJ, Doree C, Monsef I, Wood EM, et al. Convalescent plasma or hyperimmune immunoglobulin for people with COVID-19: a living systematic review. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Jul 10; 
      2020-06-04
8/10 Yes  The effects of convalescent plasma for patients with COVID-19 are uncertain
Yes (row content last updated on 2020-08-25) Full review Benefits and harms Valk SJ, Piechotta V, Chai KL, Doree C, Monsef I, Wood EM, et al. Convalescent plasma or hyperimmune immunoglobulin for people with COVID‐19: A rapid review. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2020(5)CD013600. 
    Hyperimmune immunoglobulin
2020-05-08
7/9 No The effects of immunoglobulin compared to standard care are uncertain
Yes (row content last updated on 2020-09-08)  Full review  Benefits and harms  COVID NMA. Non-randomized Studies: Intravenous Immunoglobulin vs Standard Care. 2020. 
      2020-06-04
9/9 Yes The effects of hyperimmune immunoglobulin for patients with COVID-19 are uncertain
Yes (row content last updated on 2020-08-25) Full review Benefits and harms Piechotta V, Chai KL, Valk SJ, Doree C, Monsef I, Wood EM, et al. Convalescent plasma or hyperimmune immunoglobulin for people with COVID-19: a living systematic review. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Jul 10; 
  Ventilation for COVID-19                
    Invasive ventilation  2020-05-21
4/9  No  A review of two observational studies provides low-certainty evidence that receiving tracheotomy within 7-10 days of intubation improves the prognosis and reduces the costs for patients under invasive ventilation
No Full review Other Not available 
    Non-invasive ventilation
2020-07-24
8/9 No Synthesis pending
Yes (row content last updated on 2020-07-25) Full review Benefits and harms  COVID NMA. Nonpharmacological Treatments. 2020.
      2020-05-14
9/10  Yes Although no studies were found for COVID-19 patients, indirect evidence shows that high-flow nasal cannual may reduce the need for invasive ventilation, and probably has little or no difference in mortality and length of stay No Rapid review Benefits and harms Agarwal A, Basmaji J, Muttalib F, et al. High-flow nasal cannula for acute hypoxemic respiratory failure in patients with COVID-19: systematic reviews of effectiveness and its risks of aerosolization, dispersion, and infection transmission [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jun 15]. Les canules nasales à haut débit pour le traitement de l’insuffisance respiratoire hypoxémique aiguë chez les patients atteints de la COVID-19: comptes rendus systématiques de l’efficacité et des risques d’aérosolisation, de dispersion et de transmission de l’infection [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jun 15]. Can J Anaesth. 2020;1-32. doi:10.1007/s12630-020-01740-2
    Proning                
  Other aspects of critical care for COVID-19                
    Sepsis management 2020-07-24
8/9 No  The evidence profile is not currently available (which is likely because they are updating it, based on new study results) Yes  Full review  Benefits and harms  COVID NMA. Nonpharmacological Treatments. 2020. 
      2020-05-14
9/10 Yes  Although no studies were found for COVID-19 patients, indirect evidence shows that high-flow nasal cannual may reduce the need for invasive ventilation, and probably has little or no difference in mortality and length of stay  No  Rapid review  Benefits and harms  Agarwal A, Basmaji J, Muttalib F, et al. High-flow nasal cannula for acute hypoxemic respiratory failure in patients with COVID-19: systematic reviews of effectiveness and its risks of aerosolization, dispersion, and infection transmission [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jun 15]. Les canules nasales à haut débit pour le traitement de l’insuffisance respiratoire hypoxémique aiguë chez les patients atteints de la COVID-19: comptes rendus systématiques de l’efficacité et des risques d’aérosolisation, de dispersion et de transmission de l’infection [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jun 15]. Can J Anaesth. 2020;1-32. doi:10.1007/s12630-020-01740-2 
    Drugs to manage COVID-19 critical care
               
  Palliative care under COVID-19 restrictions
               
  Treatment of COVID-19 sequelae
2020-07-24
8/9  No  Synthesis pending
Yes (row content last updated on 2020-07-25)  Full review  Benefits and harms  COVID NMA. Rehabilitation. 2020. 
    2020-04-30
4/9  No  Neurological events might be a common sequelae of COVID-19 infection, and early rehabiltiation is recommended for the acute phase of the infection using proper virtual care for the post-acute phase
Yes (row content last updated on 2020-07-25)  Full review  Other  de Sire A, Andrenelli E, Negrini F, Negrini S, Ceravolo M. Systematic Rapid Living Review on Rehabilitation Needs Due to Covid-19: Update to April 30th 2020. Eur J Phys Rehabil Med 2020. 
    2020-05-27
5/11 No A systematic review of observational studies showed that heart failure, myocardial injury, and cardiar arrhythmias are the most common cardiovascular complications in patients with COVID-19 No Full review Other Kunutsor SK, Laukkanen JA. Cardiovascular complications in COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Infect. 2020;S0163-4453(20)30345-5. 
    2020-04-24
7/9 No This review provides guidance for clinical, diagnostic and epidemiological studies to characterize the manifestations and burdens of neurological disease in COVID-19
No Full review Other Romoli M, Jelcic I, Bernard-Valnet R, et al. A systematic review of neurological manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection: the devil is hidden in the details. Eur J Neurol. 2020;10.1111/ene.14382. 
    2020-06-30
5/10  No  Neurological events might be frequently associated with COVID-19 infection, and given the sparse evidence for rehabilitation interventions, the effects of individual treatments are uncertain Yes (row content last updated on 2020-09-17)
Rapid review  Other  Ceravolo MG, Arienti C, De Sire A, Andrenelli E, Negrini F, Lazzarini S, et al. Rehabilitation and Covid-19: The Cochrane Rehabilitation 2020 rapid living systematic review. European journal of physical and rehabilitation medicine. 2020. 
  Community-based treatment of COVID-19
               
Clinical management of pandemic-related impacts on health more generally                
  Interrupted management of other types of urgent care                
  Interrupted management or poor self management of chronic conditions                 
    Chronic conditions                
    Cancer  2020-05-23
7/10 No A systematic review of observational studies showed no association between receiving a particular cancer therapy and mortality in patients with COVID-19 No Full review Other Venkatesulu BP, Chandrasekar VT, Girdhar P, Advani P, Sharma A, Elumalai T, et al. A systematic review and meta-analysis of cancer patients affected by a novel coronavirus. medRxiv. 2020. 
      2020-04-15
4/9  No  No studies were found about the effects of adjusting dexamethasone-based antiemetic regimens for cancer patients with COVID-19  No  Full review  Other  Grant RC, Rotstein C, Liu G, et al. Reducing dexamethasone antiemetic prophylaxis during the COVID-19 pandemic: recommendations from Ontario, Canada [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jun 30]. Support Care Cancer. 2020;1-6. doi:10.1007/s00520-020-05588-6 
    Other conditions                
  Burn-out and trauma in essential workers                
    Psychosocial support 2020-05-25
7/11  No  The prevalence of depression and anxiety among health staff caring for COVID-19 patients may be as high as 30%, although infected personnel may have higher rates of mental illness  No  Full review  Other  Luo M, Guo L, Yu M, Wang H. The psychological and mental impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on medical staff and general public - A systematic review and meta-analysis [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jun 7]. Psychiatry Res. 2020;291:113190. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113190 
    Burn-out care 2020-05-11
7/10 Yes The prevalence of mental health outcomes among healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic is uncertain No Rapid review Other Muller AE, Hafstad EV, Himmels JPW, Smedslund G, Flottorp S, Stensland S, et al. The mental health impact of the covid-19 pandemic on healthcare workers, and interventions to help them: a rapid systematic review. medRxiv. 2020 Jan 1;2020.07.03.20145607.
    Trauma-informed care                
  Mental health and additions issues related to the pandemic response                
    Remote management of existing conditions                
    Management of pandemic-related exacerbations of existing conditions                
    Management of pandemic-related emergence of conditions Not specified 9/9  No Influence of COVID-19 generally, and influence of government responses to pandemic specifically on mental health, vary across different populations, with the impacts on vulnerable populations and on effective interventions to support them an emerging area of interest
Yes (row content last updated on 2020-07-25) Full review 
Benefits and harms   The Depressed Project. Living Systematic Review of Mental Health in COVID-19. Montreal: 2020. 
      2020-05-25
7/11  No  The COVID-19 pandemic has a large psychosocial impact on the general public  No  Full review  Other  Luo M, Guo L, Yu M, Wang H. The psychological and mental impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on medical staff and general public - A systematic review and meta-analysis [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jun 7]. Psychiatry Res. 2020;291:113190. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113190 
      2020-05-01
7/11  No  The current COVID-19 pandemic has substantially affected the prevalence of mental health conditions in the general population, and the impacts vary among different populations No  Full review  Other  Salari N, Hosseinian-Far A, Jalali R, Vaisi-Raygani A, Rasoulpoor S, Mohammadi M, et al. Prevalence of stress, anxiety, depression among the general population during the COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Globalization and Health. 2020;16:57. 
  Reproductive care for patients with COVID-19                
    Antenatal care 2020-04-30
8/11 No Current evidence suggests the most common signs of COVID-19 in pregnant women include fever, dry cough, sore throat and ground-glass opacities on CT scan, and that the risk of pre-term birth and cesarian section may be higher No Full review Other Matar R, Alrahmani L, Monzer N, et al. Clinical Presentation and Outcomes of Pregnant Women with COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jun 23]. Clin Infect Dis. 2020;ciaa828. doi:10.1093/cid/ciaa828
      2020-04-18
8/10  No  A review of case reports and case series found that most pregnant women with COVID-19 infection developed a mild or moderate severity illness, and while most  babies born to infected women tested negative for infection, a minority were symptomatic irrespective of the result of diagnostic tests No  Full review  Other  Trippella G, Ciarcià M, Ferrari M, et al. COVID-19 in Pregnant Women and Neonates: A Systematic Review of the Literature with Quality Assessment of the Studies. Pathogens. 2020;9(6):E485. Published 2020 Jun 18. doi:10.3390/pathogens9060485 
    Childbirth 2020-04-29
7/11  No  In pregnancies complicated by SARS-CoV-2 infection, maternal deaths have not been reported, but up to 20% of pregnancies may end in pre-term birth, and 85% in a cesarean section  No  Full review  Other  Huntley BJF, Huntley ES, Di Mascio D, Chen T, Berghella V, Chauhan SP. Rates of Maternal and Perinatal Mortality and Vertical Transmission in Pregnancies Complicated by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-Co-V-2) Infection: A Systematic Review. Obstet Gynecol. 2020. 
 
 
    Post-partum care 2020-05-06
4/9  No  Among pregnancies complicated by SARS-CoV-2, there appears to be no risk of vertical transmission  No  Full review  Other  Walker KF, O'Donoghue K, Grace N, et al. Maternal transmission of SARS-COV-2 to the neonate, and possible routes for such transmission: A systematic review and critical analysis. BJOG. 2020. 
    Newborn care 2020-05-06
4/9  No  Among pregnancies complicated by SARS-CoV-2, the neonatal death rate has been found to be 0.3%  No  Full review  Other  Walker KF, O'Donoghue K, Grace N, et al. Maternal transmission of SARS-COV-2 to the neonate, and possible routes for such transmission: A systematic review and critical analysis. BJOG. 2020. 
      2020-04-07
5/10 No Current evidence suggests that the most common symptoms of COVID-19 among infants and neonates are fever and cough, and despite presenting with more severe disease than older children, they do not experience higher mortality
No Full review Other Raba, A.A., Abobaker, A., Elgenaidi, I.S. and Daoud, A. (2020), Novel Coronavirus Infection (COVID‐19) in Children Younger Than One Year: A Systematic Review of Symptoms, Management and Outcomes. Acta Paediatr. Accepted Author Manuscript. doi:10.1111/apa.15422
      2020-04-18
8/10  No  A review of case reports and case series found that babies born to an infected mother are not at an increased risk of poor neonatal outcomes, and while a minority tested positive for the virus there is still uncertainty around vertical transmission No  Full review  Other  Trippella G, Ciarcià M, Ferrari M, et al. COVID-19 in Pregnant Women and Neonates: A Systematic Review of the Literature with Quality Assessment of the Studies. Pathogens. 2020;9(6):E485. Published 2020 Jun 18. doi:10.3390/pathogens9060485 
    Contraception                
    Termination services                
  Domestic and gender-based violence related to the pandemic response                
Health promotion more generally                
  Eating healthy food                
  Avoiding or minimizing unhealthy habits like smoking or excessive alcohol intake                
  Remaining physically active                
  Staying social connected 2020-04-07
7/10  Yes  The effects of using of videoconferencing interventions to reduce loneliness in older adults are uncertain  No  Full review  Benefits and harms  Noone C, McSharry J, Smalle M, et al. Video Calls for Reducing Social Isolation and Loneliness in Older People: a Rapid Review. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2020;5:CD013632. 
  Finding trustworthy information                

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