Evidence about clinical management

Evidence syntheses on this webpage are organized by:

  1. prophylaxis for COVID-19 (drugs used to prevent severe COVID-19 infection organized by molecule)
  2. clinical treatment of COVID-19 (prognostic factors, drugs organized by broad type and within that by molecule, blood products, ventilation, other aspects of critical care, treatment of sequelae, community-based treatment, and complementary and alternative therapies)
  3. clinical management of pandemic-related impacts on health more generally (interrupted management of other conditions, routine management considerations for other conditions, burn-out and trauma in essential health workers, mental health and addiction issues, and reproductive care)
  4. health promotion more generally

For drugs, we rely primarily on the three ‘best’ living evidence syntheses covering the safety and efficacy of all drug types (rather than syntheses covering single molecules):

  1. COVID-NMA (which is one of the two groups providing frequent updates to meta-analyses at the level of individual molecules)
  2. BMJ | McMaster (which is the only group maintaining a living network meta-analysis that makes comparisons across molecules, and which also maintains a separate living evidence synthesis about prophylaxis for COVID-19)
  3. Pan American Health Organization (which is the second of two groups providing frequent updates to meta-analyses at the level of individual molecules)

Although the third of these groups (BMJ | McMaster) transitioned in September 2021 to providing more frequent updates to meta-analyses at the level of individual molecules (through a dedicated website), we have chosen to continue to label molecule-level findings from the first group (COVID-NMA) and second group (PAHO) as ‘best’ and not add a third set of findings from BMJ/McMaster for every molecule unless they are separately singled out in their periodic publications.

We include additional living evidence syntheses when they address molecules not covered by these living evidence syntheses.

We continue to add evidence syntheses to this webpage as we harvest and process weekly updates from ‘high-yield, high quality’ sources of evidence syntheses and as we add new sources. More details are available about the context for the inventory, our approach to developing and maintain it, and tips for using it. Similar webpages are available for evidence about public-health measures, health-system arrangements, and economic and social responses.

Broad and specific decisions Criteria for 'best evidence synthesis' Details to support relevance assessmentAdditional decision-relevant details Citation
Date of last search Quality (AMSTAR) rating Evidence-certainty (e.g., GRADE) assessment availableKey findings
Living evidence synthesis             Type of synthesis             Type of question
Prophylaxis for COVID-19
        
 Drugs to prevent severe COVID-19 infection 2021-01-20 10/11Yes[All drugs] No molecules studied in large clinical trials have demonstrated benefits as a prophylactic treatment for COVID-19Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full reviewBenefits and harmsBartoszko JJ, Siemieniuk RAC, Kum E, Qasim A, Zeraatkar D, Ge L, et al. Prophylaxis for covid-19: Living systematic review and network meta-analysis. The BMJ. 2021;373(8290);n949.
  2021-09-307/10Yes[Bamlinivimab] Bamlinivimab probably decreases the incidence of symptomatic infection among exposed individuals Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 5 August 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
  2020-09-218/10No[Chloroquine] No evidence has been found on the effects of chloroquine as a prophylactic treatment to prevent COVID-19Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full reviewBenefits and harmsHernandez AV, Roman YM, Pasupuleti V, Barboza JJ, White CM. Update alert 3: Hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine for the treatment or prophylaxis of COVID-19. Annals of Internal Medicine 2020:L20-1257.
  2021-01-20
10/11
Yes[Hydroxychloroquine] Adding prophylactic hydroxychloroquine to standard care does not have an important effect on mortality and hospitalization, and probably increases adverse events Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full review Benefits and harms Bartoszko JJ, Siemieniuk RAC, Kum E, Qasim A, Zeraatkar D, Ge L, et al. Prophylaxis for covid-19: Living systematic review and network meta-analysis. The BMJ. 2021;373(8290);n949.
  2021-10-1510/11Yes[Hydroxychloroquine] Using hydroxychloroquine as a prophylaxis strategy probably slightly reduces secondary COVID-19 cases, it may not have an effect on hospitalizations, and probably increases the risk of adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full reviewBenefits and harmsPreventative treatments: Hydroxychloroquine vs placebo. COVID NMA; 2020.
  2020-09-218/10No[Hydroxychloroquine] No evidence has been found on the effects of chloroquine as a prophylactic treatment to prevent COVID-19Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full reviewBenefits and harmsHernandez AV, Roman YM, Pasupuleti V, Barboza JJ, White CM. Update alert 3: Hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine for the treatment or prophylaxis of COVID-19. Annals of Internal Medicine 2020:L20-1257.
  2021-09-307/10Yes[Hydroxychloroquine] Hydroxychloroquine may not reduce the risk of infection in individuals exposed to COVID-19 and it may slightly increase mortality and serious adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 5 August 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
  2021-01-20
10/11
Yes[Ivermectin] The effects of using ivermectin as a prophylactic treatment for COVID-19 are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full reviewBenefits and harms Bartoszko JJ, Siemieniuk RAC, Kum E, Qasim A, Zeraatkar D, Ge L, et al. Prophylaxis for covid-19: Living systematic review and network meta-analysis. medRxiv. 2021; 
  2021-01-20
10/11
Yes[Ivermectin + iota-carrageenan] The effects of using ivermectin with iota-carrageenan as a prophylactic treatment for COVID-19 are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full reviewBenefits and harmsBartoszko JJ, Siemieniuk RAC, Kum E, Qasim A, Zeraatkar D, Ge L, et al. Prophylaxis for covid-19: Living systematic review and network meta-analysis. The BMJ. 2021;373(8290);n949.
  2021-02-018/11Yes[Ivermectin] Whereas limited evidence was found on the uses of ivermectin for COVID-19 prophylaxis in healthy populations, the evidence shows that it may slightly reduce COVID-19 infectionNoFull reviewBenefits and harmsBryant A, Lawrie TA, Dowswell T, Fordham E. Ivermectin for prevention and treatment of COVID-19 infection: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Research Square. 2021.
  2021-09-307/10Yes[REGEN-COV (casirivimab and imdevimab)] Using REGEN-COV (casirivimab and imdevimab) in exposed asymptomatic individuales reduces symptomatic infectionsYes (row content last checked on 2021-05-17)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing living update of COVID-19 therapeutic options: Summary of evidence. Rapid review, 30 September 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
  N/A (Protocol)n/aYes[Protocol - results not yet available] A review evaluating the effects of using monoclonal antibodies to prevent COVID-19 is currently being conductedYes (row content last checked on 2021-05-17)ProtocolBenefits and harmsHirsch C, Valk SJ, Piechotta V, Chai KL, Estcourt LJ, Monsef I, et al. SARS-CoV-2-neutralising monoclonal antibodies to prevent COVID-19. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2021;(5):CD014945
Clinical treatment of COVID-19         
 Assessing most important prognostic factors 
2021-03-314/10No While age is the most important prognostic factor for estimating the likelihood of hospitalization, severe disease or death among COVID-19 patients, most comorbidities, male sex, non-white ethnicity and deprivation are also important Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Rapid review Other Norwegian Institute of Public Health. COVID-19 and risk factors for severe disease – A rapid review, 3rd update. Oslo: Norwegian Institute of Public Health; 2020 
 
2020-04-28
7/10YesMany clinical and socioeconomic factors provide prognostic information on mortality or severe disease in patients with COVID-19
NoFull reviewOtherIzcovich A, Ragusa M, Tortosa F, Marzio M, Agnoletti C, Bengolea A, et al. Prognostic Factors for Severity and Mortality in Patients Infected with COVID-19: A Systematic Review. The Lancet 2020. 
  N/A (protocol)
n/a Yes [Protocol - results not yet available] A systematic review evaluating the prognostic factors for severity and mortality among COVID-19 patients is currently being conductedYes (row content last checked on 2021-08-30)Protocol Other Izcovich A, Ragusa M, Sanguine V, Tortosa F, Espinosa F, Agnoletti C, Marzio AL, Bengolea A, Saavedra E, Catalano HN, Rada G. Prognostic factors for the severity and mortality in patients infected with COVID-19: A living systematic review protocol. PLOS One. 2020;15(11);e0241955
  N/A (protocol)
n/a No [Protocol - results not yet available] A systematic review assessing the clinical features risk factures and outcomes of COVID-19 in infants, children and adolescents is currently being conductedYes (row content last checked on 2021-08-30)Protocol Other Neal E, Russell F, Curtis N, Uahwatanasakul W, Watson B, Overmars I. COVID-19 in infants, children and adolescents: a living systematic review on clinical features, risk factors and outcomes. PROSPERO. 2020;CRD42020212228. 
  2021-04-015/10NoBeing older than 60 and having two or more comorbidities are probably the most important factors explaining high mortality rates due to COVID-19NoRapid reviewOtherGates M, Pillay J, Wingert A, Guitard S, Rahman S, Zakher B, et al. Risk factors associated with severe outcomes of COVID-19: An updated rapid review to inform national guidance on vaccine prioritization in Canada. medRxiv. 2021.
  2021-02-018/11NoPatients who are male, obese, older, and have a history of smoking face higher risk of developing severe COVID-19; comorbidities that also explain a worse prognosis are hypertension, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, coronary heart disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cerebrovascular disease and chronic liver disease [Review of studies of moderate quality and heterogeneity among their findings]NoFull reviewOtherLi X, Zhong X, Wang Y, Zeng X, Luo T, Liu Q. Clinical determinants of the severity of COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2021;16(5):e0250602. 
  N/A (Protocol)n/aNo[Protocol - results not yet available] A review evaluating all prognostic factors to explain the clinical course of patients with COVID-19 is currently being conductedYes (row content last checked on 2021-08-30)ProtocolOtherFilho CRR, Pinto ACPN, da Rocha AP, Atallah AN, de Assis Reis FS, Ramalho GS, et al. Prognostic factors for the clinical course of patients with COVID-19: A rapid living systematic review. PROSPERO. 2020; CRD42020183437.
  N/A (Protocol)n/aNo[Protocol - results not yet available] A review evaluating factors contributing to higher COVID-19 risks and severity is currently being conductedYes (row content last checked on 2021-08-30)ProtocolOtherTing Wong TH, Liang W, Luo S, He B, Li Q, Au Yeung SL. Factors contributing to higher coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) risk or its severity: A living systematic review of Mendelian randomization study. PROSPERO. 2021;CRD42021252079.
  2021-02-218/11NoAge, pre-existing comorbidities, and greater inflammatory response are associated with higher mortality in patients admitted to ICU with COVID-19, while sex and BMI were not. [Review of studies of moderate quality with important heterogeneity among their findings]NoFull reviewOtherTaylor EH, Marson EJ, Elhadi M, Macleod KDM, Yu YC, Davids R, et al. Factors associated with mortality in patients with COVID-19 admitted to intensive care: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Anaesthesia. 2021.
 Screening and testing for COVID-19         
  See public-health measures        
 Drugs to treat COVID-19        
  All drugs2021-02-1210/11YesWhile the effectiveness of several drugs for COVID-19 remain uncertain due to important study limitations, the best-available evidence suggests that corticosteroids probably reduce mechanical ventilation and mortality among severe patients, remdesivir may reduce the need for mechanical ventilation, but it may not have an impact on mortality, interleukin-6 inhibitors probably reduce mechanical ventilation and length of stay, and JAK inhibitors may reduce mortality, mechanical ventilation and length of stay
Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full reviewBenefits and harmsSiemieniuk R, Bartoszko JJ, Ge L, Zeraatkar D, Izcovich A, Kum E, et al. Update to living systematic review on drug treatments for covid-19. BMJ. 2021;370:m2980.
   2021-09-307/10YesAmong the 147 therapeutic options that have been studied in clinical trials, evidence shows that baricitinib, corticosteroids, REGEN-COV, sotrovimab and tocilizumab are the only alternatives that may have an effect on mortality and other clinical outcomes among COVID-19 patients Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 5 August 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2020-12-109/11NoAmong the 59 therapeutic options found to treat COVID-19, corticosteroids probably significantly reduces mortality in severe or critical patients, whereas remdesivir is the safest option in terms of severe adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full reviewBenefits and harmsDe Crescenzo F, Amato L, Cruciani F, Moynihan LP, Loreto D’Alò G, Vecchi S, et al. Comparative effectiveness of pharmacological interventions for Covid-19: A systematic review and network meta-analysis. Frontiers in Pharmacology. 2021.
  Anti-virals2021-10-1510/11 Yes [Baloxavir marboxil] The effects of adding baloxavir marboxil to standard care are uncertain Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full review Benefits and harms COVID NMA. Baloxavir Marboxil vs standard care. 2020. 
  
2021-10-1510/11No [Baloxavir marboxil vs favipiravir] The effects of baloxavir marboxil compared with favipravir are uncertain
Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full review Benefits and harms COVID NMA. Favipiravir vs Baloxavir Marboxil. 2020.
   2021-10-1510/11No[Baloxavir marboxil vs lopinavir + ritonavir] The effects of baloxavir marboxil compared with lopinavir + ritonavir or darunavir/cobicistat + umifenovir + interferon-a are uncertain
Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full review Benefits and harms COVID NMA. Baloxavir Marboxil vs Lopinavir + Ritonavir or Darunavir/Cobicistat + Umifenovir + Interferon-a. 2020.
   2021-10-1510/11 No [Darunavir/cobicistat] The effects of adding darunavir/cobicistat to standard care are uncertain
Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full review Benefits and harms COVID NMA. Darunavir/Cobicistat vs Standard Care. 2020.
   2021-09-307/10Yes[Emtricitabine/tenofovir] The effects of emtricitabine/tenofovir to treat COVID-19 patients are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 5 August 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-10-1510/11Yes [Favipiravir] In COVID-19 hospitalized patients, adding favipiravir to standard care may slightly increase viral negative conversion and may make little or no difference in clinical improvement; the effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full reviewBenefits and harms COVID NMA. Favipiravir vs standard care. 2020. 
   2021-09-307/10Yes[Favipiravir] Using favipiravir may not reduce mortality and mechanical ventilation, whereas it probably does not have an effect on time to symptom resolutionYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 5 August 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-10-1510/11No [Favipiravir vs lopinavir + ritonavir] The effects of favipriavir compared with lopinavir + ritonavir or darunavir/cobicistat + umifenovir + interferon-a are uncertain
Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full review Benefits and harms COVID NMA. Favipiravir vs Lopinavir + Ritonavir or Darunavir/Cobicistat + Umifenovir + Interferon-a. 2020.
   2021-10-1510/11Yes[Favipiravir vs umifenovir] The benefits of favipiravir compared with umifenovir are uncertain while it may reduce adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Favipiravir vs Umifenovir. 2020.
   2021-02-12
10/11Yes [Lopinavir + ritonavir] Lopinavir + ritonavir may not reduce mortality or have an effect in other patient clinical outcome Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full review Benefits and harms Siemieniuk R, Bartoszko JJ, Ge L, Zeraatkar D, Izcovich A, Kum E, et al. Update to living systematic review on drug treatments for covid-19. BMJ. 2021;370:m2980.
   2021-10-1510/11No [Lopinavir + ritonavir] Adding lopinavir + ritonavir to novaferon and standard care in moderate or severely ill people may increase the viral negative conversion but effects for other outcomes are uncertain
Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full review Benefits and harms COVID NMA. Novaferon + Lopinavir + Ritonavir vs Novaferon. 2020.
   2021-10-1510/11Yes [Lopinavir + ritonavir] Adding lopinavir + ritonavir to standard care makes little or no difference on mortality, and may have a slight effect on the incidence of clinical improvement or viral conversion, whereas it may not substantially increase adverse events
Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full review Benefits and harms COVID NMA. Lopinavir + Ritonavir vs Standard Care. 2020.
   2021-09-307/10Yes[Lopinavir + ritonavir] Using lopinavir + ritonavir probably does not reduce mortality and may not increase the severe adverse events in COVID-19 patientsYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 5 August 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-10-1510/11Yes[Lopinavir + ritonavir vs hydroxychloroquine] Compared to hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir + ritonavir may slightly increase viral negative conversion, while it probably slightly increases the serious adverse events; the effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Lopinavir-Ritonavir vs Hydroxychloroquine. 2021.
   2021-10-1510/11No[Lopinavir + ritonavir vs novaferon] The effects of lopinavir + ritinoavir compared to novaferon are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Novaferon vs Lopinavir + Ritonavir. 2020.
   2021-10-1510/11Yes[Lopinavir + ritonavir vs umifenovir] Among hospitalized patients, umifenovir may reduce adverse events compared with lopinavir + ritonavir, and its effects on other clinical outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Lopinavir + Ritonavir vs Umifenovir. 2020.
   2021-05-106/9Yes[Molnupiravir] The effects of molnupiravir cannot yet be assessed; upcoming studies are expected to be published soonYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full reviewBenefits and harmsEUnetHTA Rolling Collaborative Review (RCR19) Authoring Team. Molnupiravir for the treatment of COVID-19. Diemen (The Netherlands): EUnetHTA; 2021. 
   2021-02-12
10/11 Yes [Remdesivir] Remdesivir may slightly reduce mortality and it may reduce the risk of mechanical ventilation, while it probably does not increase adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full review Benefits and harms Siemieniuk R, Bartoszko JJ, Ge L, Zeraatkar D, Izcovich A, Kum E, et al. Update to living systematic review on drug treatments for covid-19. BMJ. 2021;370:m2980.
   2021-10-1510/11Yes [Remdesivir] In hospitalized COVID-19 patients, remdesivir probably reduces disease progression, probably makes little or no difference in mortality at 28 days and it may slightly increase clinical improvement; it probably does not increase the incidence of any adverse events, and it may not increase serious adverse events
Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full review Benefits and harms COVID NMA. Remdesivir vs standard care/placebo. 2020.
   2021-10-1510/11Yes [Remdesivir] Using remdesivir for five days compared to 10 days may increase disease progression, and increase the frequency of serious adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full review Benefits and harms COVID NMA. Remdesivir 5 days vs Remdesivir 10 days. 2020. 
   2021-09-307/10Yes[Remdesivir] Using remdesivir may slightly reduce mortality and invasive ventilation, and it may improve time to symptom resolutionYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 5 August 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-04-1610/11Yes[Remdesivir] Remdesivir probably has little or no difference on mortality and may not have an effect on clinical improvement, while it probably decreases the risk of adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full reviewBenefits and harmsAnsems  K, Grundeis  F, Dahms  K, Mikolajewska  A, Thieme  V, Piechotta  V, et al. Remdesivir for the treatment of COVID‐19. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews .2021;8:Art. No.: CD014962. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD014962. 
   2021-10-1510/11
Yes
[Ribavirin + interferon-b-1b] The effects of adding ribavarin and interferon-b-1b to liponavir + ritonavir are uncertain
Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full review
Benefits and harms
COVID NMA. Lopinavir + Ritonavir + Ribavirin + Interferon-b-1b vs Lopinavir + Ritonavir. 2020.
   2021-10-1510/11Yes[Ribavirin + hydroxychloroquine] The effects of using ribavirin + hydroxychloroquine to treat COVID-19 hospitalized patients are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Hydroxychloroquine+Ribavirin vs Standard care. 2021.
   2021-10-1510/11Yes [Sofosbuvir/daclatasvir] Among hospitalized COVID-19 patients, using sofosbuvir/daclatasvir may produce little or no difference in the incidence of clinical improvement, and may not increase the adverse events; its effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full reviewBenefits and harms COVID NMA. Sofosbuvir/daclatasvir vs standard care. 2020. 
   2021-04-068/11Yes[Sofosbuvir/daclatasvir] In hospitalized COVID-19 patients, sofosbuvir/daclatasvir probably decreases mortality and the need for ICU or mechanical ventilation, while it may improve clinical recoveryNoFull reviewBenefits and harmsZein AFMZ, Sulistiyana CS, Raffaello WM, Wibowo A, Pranata R. Sofosbuvir with daclatasvir and the outcomes of patients with COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis with GRADE assessment. Postgraduate Medical Journal. 2021.
   2021-09-307/10Yes[Sofosbuvir] Using sofosbuvir alone or in combination with daclatasvir. Ledipasvir, velpatasvir, or ravidasvir may not have an effect on mortality or mechanical ventilation, whereas it probably does not affect time to symptom resolutionYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 5 August 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-10-1510/11Yes[Sofosbuvir/ledipasvir] The effects of sofosbuvir/ledipasvir are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Sofosbuvir/ledipasvir vs Standard care. 2021.
   2021-09-307/10Yes[Tenofovir + emtricitabine] The effects of tenofovir + emtricitabine to treat COVID-19 patients are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 5 August 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-10-1510/11Yes [Umifenovir] The effects of adding umifenovir to standard care are uncertain
Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full review Benefits and harms COVID NMA. Umifenovir vs Standard Care. 2020.
   2021-10-1510/11Yes [Umifenovir vs favipiravir] See comparison under favipiravir vs umifenovir
Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Favipiravir vs Umifenovir. 2020.
   2021-10-1510/11Yes[Umifenovir vs lopinavir + ritonavir] See comparison under lopinavir + ritonavir vs umifenovirYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full review Benefits and harms COVID NMA. Lopinavir + Ritonavir vs Umifenovir. 2020.
   2020-07-05
5/9 No A systematic review on the cost-effectiveness of antiviral treatments for pandemics found no articles on COVID-19, but modelling studies showed that antivirals may be a cost-effective strategy either as a single intervention or as part of a multifaceted strategyNoFull review Costs and cost-effectiveness Dawoud DM & Soliman KY. Cost-effectiveness of antiviral treatments for pandemics and outbreaks of respiratory illnesses, including COVID-19: A systematic review of published economic evaluations. Value in Health. 2020;23(11):1409-1422. 
  Other antimicrobials
2021-02-12
10/11 Yes [Azithromycin] Azithromycin may not reduce mortality or have an effect in other patient clinical outcome Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full review Benefits and harms Siemieniuk R, Bartoszko JJ, Ge L, Zeraatkar D, Izcovich A, Kum E, et al. Update to living systematic review on drug treatments for covid-19. BMJ. 2021;370:m2980.
   2021-10-1510/11Yes[Azithromycin] In terms of mortality, azithromycin does not have an effect among hospitalized patients, and may not have an effect in mild outpatients; it probably does not have an effect on clinical improvement in hospitalized patients and it probably increase the risk of adverse events in mild outpatientsYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Azithromycin vs Standard care. 2021.
   2021-07-307/10Yes[Azithromycin] Azithromycin probably does not reduce mortality and mechanical ventilation, and does not improve time to symptom resolution among COVID-19 patientsYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 5 August 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-10-1510/11 Yes [Azithromycin] The effects of adding azithromycin to hydroxychloroquine therapy in hospitalized patients are uncertain, and it may even slightly increase serious adverse events; it may not have an effect on viral negative conversion in mild outpatients Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full review Benefits and harms COVID NMA. Hydroxychloroquine + Azithromycin vs Hydroxychloroquine. 2020. 
   2021-10-1510/11Yes[Azithromycin + hydroxychloroquine] In hospitalized COVID-19 patients, azithromycin + hydroxychloroquine may not have an effect on clinical improvement and disease progression, while it may lead to an increase in adverse events; among mild outpatients, it may not have an effect on viral negative conversion and hospitalization or deathYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Hydroxychloroquine + Azithromycin vs Standard care/Placebo. 2020.
   2021-10-1510/11Yes [Chloroquine vs hydroxychloroquine] The effects of hydroxychloroquine compared to chloroquine are uncertain
Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full review Benefits and harms COVID NMA. Hydroxychloroquine vs Chloroquine. 2020.
   2021-10-1510/11Yes[Doxycycline + ivermectin] The effects of adding doxycycline + ivermectin to standard care are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Ivermectin+Doxycycline vs standard care. 2020.
   2021-09-307/10Yes[Doxycycline] Doxycycline does not increase symptom resolution and clinical improvement, and it may not reduce hospitalizationsYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing living update of COVID-19 therapeutic options: Summary of evidence. Rapid review, 30 September 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-02-1210/11 Yes [Hydroxychloroquine] Hydroxychloroquine may not reduce mortality or have an effect in other patient clinical outcome
Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full review Benefits and harms Siemieniuk R, Bartoszko JJ, Ge L, Zeraatkar D, Izcovich A, Kum E, et al. Update to living systematic review on drug treatments for covid-19. BMJ. 2021;370:m2980.
   2021-09-307/10Yes[Hydroxychloroquine] Using hydroxychloroquine probably has no effect on mortality, invasive mechanical ventilation and time to symptom resolution among COVID-19 patients, and some studies show an increase in mortalityYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 5 August 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-10-1510/11Yes [Hydroxychloroquine] Hydroxychloroquine may not reduce mortality in mild and hospitalized patients, probably does not have an important effect on viral negative conversion (among mild outpatients), clinical improvement and disease progression (among hospitalized patients); it probably increases the risk of adverse events in hospitalized patientsYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Hydroxychloroquine vs standard care/placebo. 2021.
   2021-10-1510/11Yes[Hydroxychloroquine vs ivermectin] The benefits of using hydroxychloroquine or ivermectin in hospitalized COVID-19 patients are uncertain, and the risk of adverse events may be similarYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Ivermectin vs hydroxychloroquine. 2021.
   2021-10-1510/11 Yes [Hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin] See comparison under azithromycin + hydroxychloroquine
Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full review Benefits and harms COVID NMA. Hydroxychloroquine + Azithromycin vs Standard care/Placebo. 2020.
   2021-10-1510/11Yes[Hydroxychloroquine vs lopinavir + ritonavir] See comparison under anti-virals/lopinavir + ritonavir vs hydroxychloroquineYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Lopinavir-Ritonavir vs Hydroxychloroquine. 2021.
   2021-10-1510/11Yes[Hydroxychloroquine + ribavirin] See comparison under anti-virals/ribavirin + hydroxychloroquineYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Hydroxychloroquine+Ribavirin vs Standard care. 2021.
   2021-10-1510/11Yes [Ivermectin] In mild outpatients or hospitalized patients, adding ivermectin to standard care may have no effect on mortality at 28 days, clinical improvement and disease progression; it may not increase the risk of serious adverse events and probably does not increase the risk of any adverse event
Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full review Benefits and harms COVID NMA. Ivermectin vs standard care/placebo. 2020.
   2021-02-12
10/11 Yes [Ivermectin] Ivermectin may slightly reduce mechanical ventilation rates and may increase viral clearance, whereas it may increase the adverse events; the effects on mortality are uncertain Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full review Benefits and harms Siemieniuk R, Bartoszko JJ, Ge L, Zeraatkar D, Izcovich A, Kum E, et al. Update to living systematic review on drug treatments for covid-19. BMJ. 2021;370:m2980.
   2021-09-307/10Yes[Ivermectin] Among hospitalized COVID-19 patients, ivermectin may not reduce mortality and mechanical ventilation, while it probably does not improve time to symptom resolution; among non-severe patients, it may reduce hospitalizationsYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 5 August 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-10-1510/11 Yes [Ivermectin + doxycycline] See comparison under doxycycline + ivermectinYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full review Benefits and harms COVID NMA. Ivermectin+Doxycycline vs standard care. 2020. 
   2021-10-1510/11Yes[Ivermectin vs hydroxychloroquine] See comparison under hydroxychloroquine vs ivermectinYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Ivermectin vs hydroxychloroquine. 2021.
   2021-09-307/10Yes[Niclosamide] The effects of using niclosamide to treat COVID-19 are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 5 August 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-10-1510/11Yes[Nitazoxanide] In mild outpatients and hospitalized patients with COVID-19, nitazoxanide may not have an effect on clinical improvement; its effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Nitazoxanide vs placebo. 2020. 
  Anti-inflammatories
2021-10-157/9 Yes [Colchicine] In hospitalized patients, colchicine may reduce mortality at 28 days, it probably makes little or no difference in clinical improvement, and it probably reduce disease progression; it may slightly increase any adverse events
Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full review Benefits and harms COVID NMA. Colchicine vs Standard Care. 2020. 
   2021-02-12
10/11 Yes [Colchicine] Colchicine may reduce mortality, mechanical ventilation, and probably reduces the duration of hospitalization in non-severe patients, but its effects are uncertain for hospitalized patients Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full review Benefits and harms Siemieniuk R, Bartoszko JJ, Ge L, Zeraatkar D, Izcovich A, Kum E, et al. Update to living systematic review on drug treatments for covid-19. BMJ. 2021;370:m2980.
   2021-09-307/10Yes[Colchicine] Using colchicine in recently diagnosed COVID-19 patients probably does not reduce mortality, mechanical ventilation and time to symptom resolutionYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 5 August 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-09-307/10Yes[Colchicine + rosuvastatin] The effects of colchicine + rosuvastatin to treat COVID-19 patients are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 5 August 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-09-307/10Yes[Indomethacin] The effects of indomethacin to treat COVID-19 patients are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 5 August 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   N/A (Protocol) n/a No [Protocol - results not yet available] A systematic review on the effectiveness of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs  is currently being conductedYes (row content last checked on 2021-08-30)Protocol Benefits and harms Urrea G, Meza N, Vargas M, Ortiz L, Rada G, Madrid E. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs in Patients with COVID-19: a Living Systematic Review Protocol. PROSPERO 2020; CRD42020179594. 
  Kinase inhibitors2020-12-305/9No[Acalabrutinib] The effects of using BTK inhibitors (including acalabrutinib) for severe COVID-19 are currently uncertain [Review of mainly observational studies of low to moderate quality]NoFull reviewBenefits and harmsStack M, Sacco K, Castagnoli R, Livinski AA, Notarangelo LD, Lionakis MS. BTK inhibitors for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2): A systematic review. Research Square. 2021.
   2021-02-12
10/11 Yes [Baricitinib] JAK inhibitors may reduce mortality, mechanical ventilation and duration of hospitalization, and they probably reduce the duration of mechanical ventilation Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full review Benefits and harms Siemieniuk R, Bartoszko JJ, Ge L, Zeraatkar D, Izcovich A, Kum E, et al. Update to living systematic review on drug treatments for covid-19. BMJ. 2021;370:m2980.
   2021-09-307/10Yes[Baricitinib] Using baricitinib in patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 disease probably reduces mortality and time to symptom resolutionYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 5 August 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2020-12-305/9No[Ibrutinib] The effects of using BTK inhibitors (including ibrutinib) for severe COVID-19 are currently uncertain [Review of mainly observational studies of low to moderate quality]NoFull reviewBenefits and harmsStack M, Sacco K, Castagnoli R, Livinski AA, Notarangelo LD, Lionakis MS. BTK inhibitors for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2): A systematic review. Research Square. 2021.
   2021-09-307/10Yes[Imatinib] The effects of using imatinib to treat COVID-19 are uncertain Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 5 August 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-10-1510/11Yes [CIGB-325] The effects of using CIGB-325 are uncertain Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full review Benefits and harms COVID NMA. CIGB-325 vs standard care. 2020. 
  
2021-10-1510/11Yes[Ruxolitinib vs vitamin C] The effects of ruxolitinib compared with vitamin C are uncertain, although further research is warranted since one very small study appeared to demonstrate a benefit for ruxolitinib for the outcomes of mortality and clinical improvement
Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full review Benefits and harms COVID NMA. Ruxolitinib vs Vitamin C. 2020. 
   2021-02-12
10/11 Yes [Ruxolitinib] JAK inhibitors may reduce mortality, mechanical ventilation and duration of hospitalization, and they probably reduce the duration of mechanical ventilation Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full review Benefits and harms Siemieniuk R, Bartoszko JJ, Ge L, Zeraatkar D, Izcovich A, Kum E, et al. Update to living systematic review on drug treatments for covid-19. BMJ. 2021;370:m2980.
   2021-09-307/10Yes[Tofacitinib] Tofacitinib may increase symptom resolution or improvement, while it may increase severe adverse events in hospitalized and severe COVID-19 patientsYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 5 August 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
  Corticosteroids2021-10-1510/11Yes[Budesonide] Budesonide may reduce hospitalization or death among mild COVID-19 outpatients; its effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Budesonide vs standard care. 2021.
   2021-10-1510/11 Yes [Corticosteroids] Adding corticosteroids to standard care slightly reduces mortality and it may reduce disease progression; its effects on other outcomes are uncertain
Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full review Benefits and harms COVID NMA. Corticosteroids vs Standard Care/Placebo. 2020.
   2021-02-12
10/11 Yes [Glucocorticoids] Glucocorticoids probably reduce mortality, mechanical ventilation, and probably increase ventilator-free days in hypoxic hospitalized COVID-19 patients, whereas its effects on non-severe patients remain uncertain
Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full review Benefits and harms Siemieniuk R, Bartoszko JJ, Ge L, Zeraatkar D, Izcovich A, Kum E, et al. Update to living systematic review on drug treatments for covid-19. BMJ. 2021;370:m2980.
   2021-09-307/10Yes[Corticosteroids] Low- or moderate-dose treatment with corticosteroids probably reduces mortality in severe COVID-19 patients, while higher-doses are probably more effectiveYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 5 August 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-04-1611/11Yes[Corticosteroids] Using corticosteroids probably reduces mortality slightly and may increase ventilator-free days; the effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full reviewBenefits and harmsWagner C, Griesel M, Mikolajewska A, Mueller A, Nothacker M, Kley K, et al. Systemic corticosteroids for the treatment of COVID-19. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2021;(8):CD014963.
   2021-09-307/10Yes[Inhaled steroids] Using inhaled steroids may reduce hospitalization rates and improve time to symptom resolution, but their effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 5 August 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
  Biologics2020-06-20
10/11Yes [Anakinra] The effects of using anakinra are uncertain No Full review Benefits and harms Kim MS, An MH, Kim WJ, Hwang TH. Comparative efficacy and safety of pharmacological interventions for the treatment of COVID-19: A systematic review and network meta-analysis. PLOS Medicine. 2020;17(12):e1003501.
   2021-01-07
9/11 Yes [Anakinra] The effects of anakinra for COVID-19 patients are uncertain NoFull review Benefits and harms Khan F, Stewart I, Fabbri L, Moss S, Robinson K, Smyth AR, et al. A systematic review of Anakinra, Sarilumab, Siltuximab with meta-analysis of Tocilizumab for Covid-19. Thorax. 2020. 
   2021-09-307/10Yes[Anakinra] The effects of anakinra for COVID-19 patients are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 5 August 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-10-1510/11Yes[Anakinra] In hospitalized COVID-19 patients, anakinra may have little or no difference in mortality while it slightly reduce disease progression; it probably slightly increase clinical improvement and it probably does not increase the adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Anakinra vs standard care. 2021.
   2021-05-136/9Yes[APN01] The effects of APN01 cannot yet be assessed; upcoming studies are expected to be published soonYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full reviewBenefits and harmsEUnetHTA Rolling Collaborative Review (RCR09) Authoring Team. APN01 for the treatment of COVID- 19. Diemen (The Netherlands): EUnetHTA; 2020.
   2021-10-1510/11 Yes [Bamlanivimab] In hospitalized COVID-19 patients, bamlanivimab may make little or no difference in mortality clinical improvement, and disease progression; it may not increase the risk of serious adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full review Benefits and harms COVID NMA. Bamlanivimab (LY-CoV555) vs Placebo. 2020.
   2021-09-307/10Yes[Bamlanivimab] Using bamlanivimab probably does not have an important effect on time to symptom resolution, and its effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 5 August 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-06-1711/11Yes[Bamlanivimab] Using bamlanivimab probably decreases hospitalizations in patients with COVID-19, and its effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full reviewBenefits and harmsKreuzberger N, Hirsch C, Chai KL, Piechotta V, Valk SJ, Estcourt LJ, et al. SARS‐CoV‐2‐neutralising monoclonal antibodies for treatment of COVID‐19. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2021.
   2021-10-1510/11Yes[Bamlanivimab + etesevimab] In mild outpatients, bamlanivimab + etesevimab may increase clinical improvement and viral negative conversion, while it may reduce the risk of hospitalization or deathYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. LY-CoV555+LY-CoV016 vs placebo. 2021.
   2021-07-307/10Yes[Bamlanivimab + etesevimab] Bamlanivimab + etesevimab probably reduces hospitalizations in patients with COVID-19, while its effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 5 August 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-06-1711/11Yes[Bamlanivimab + etesevimab] Among non-hospitalized COVID-19 patients, bamlanivimab + etesevimab may decrease mortality and hospital admissions, while it may increase the risk of serious adverse events; its effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full reviewBenefits and harmsKreuzberger N, Hirsch C, Chai KL, Piechotta V, Valk SJ, Estcourt LJ, et al. SARS‐CoV‐2‐neutralising monoclonal antibodies for treatment of COVID‐19. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2021.
   2021-09-307/10Yes[RBD-specific polyclonal F(ab')2 fragments of equine antibodies] The effects of using INM005 in COVID-19 patients are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 5 August 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-09-307/10Yes[Canakinumab] The effects of canakinumab to treat COVID-19 patients is currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 5 August 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-10-1510/11Yes[Canakinumab] Among patients hospitalized with COVID-19, canakinumab may slightly reduce mortality and disease progression, while it probably slightly increases clinical improvement; it may not increase the risk of severe adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Canakinumab vs Placebo. 2021.
   2021-10-1510/11Yes[Interferon alpha-2b] The effects of using interferon alpha-2b in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Interferon alpha2b vs Standard care. 2021.
  
2021-10-1510/11Yes [Inferferon β-1a] The effects of using interferon β-1a to treat COVID-19 patients are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full review Benefits and harms COVID NMA. Interferon β vs standard care/placebo. 2020.
   2021-09-307/10Yes[Inferferon β-1a] Using inferferon β-1a probably has no effect on COVID-19 patientsYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 5 August 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-10-1510/11Yes[Interferon β-1b + rivabirin] See comparison under anti-virals/ribavirin +interferon-b-1b + lopinavir + ritonavir vs lopinavir + ritonavir
Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full review Benefits and harms COVID NMA. Lopinavir + Ritonavir + Ribavirin + Interferon-b-1b vs Lopinavir + Ritonavir. 2020. 
   2021-02-12
10/11 Yes [Interferon β-1b] Interferon β-1b may not reduce mortality or have an effect in other patient clinical outcome

Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)

Full review Benefits and harms Siemieniuk R, Bartoszko JJ, Ge L, Zeraatkar D, Izcovich A, Kum E, et al. Update to living systematic review on drug treatments for covid-19. BMJ. 2021;370:m2980.
   2021-10-1510/11 Yes [Interferon gamma] The effects of adding interferon gamma to a interferon α-2b  therapy are uncertain Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full reviewBenefits and harms COVID NMA. Interferon α-2b + Interferon gamma+ vs Interferon α-2b. 2020. 
   2021-10-1510/11 Yes [Itolizumab] The effects of adding itolizumab to standard care are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full review Benefits and harms COVID NMA. Itolizumab vs standard care. 2020. 
   2021-05-106/9Yes[Gimsilumab] The effects of gimsilumab cannot yet be assessed; upcoming studies are expected to be published soonYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full reviewBenefits and harmsEUnetHTA Rolling Collaborative Review (RCR14) Authoring Team. Gimsilumab for the treatment of COVID-19. Diemen (The Netherlands): EUnetHTA; 2021.
   2021-08-157/10Yes[Lenzilumab] Using lenzilumab may reduce mortality and invasive ventilation rates in severe COVID-19 patientsYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 5 August 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-05-036/9Yes[Mavrilimumab] The effects of mavrilimumab to treat COVID-19 patients are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full reviewBenefits and harmsEUnetHTA Rolling Collaborative Review (RCR21). Authoring Team. Mavrilimumab for the treatment of COVID-19. Diemen (The Netherlands): EUnetHTA; 2021.
   2020-07-01
7/11 No [Meplazumab] One systematic review comparing several immunomodulatory agents for managing COVID-19 infection concluded that meplazumab is probably not  beneficial No Full review Benefits and harms Talaie H, Hosseini SM, Nazari M, et al. Is there any potential management against COVID-19? A systematic review and meta-analysis [published online ahead of print, 2020 Aug 18]. Daru. 2020;1-13. doi:10.1007/s40199-020-00367-4 
   2021-10-1510/11No[Novaferon] The effects of adding novaferon to lopinavir + ritonavir are uncertain although one small study found a benefit for novaferon and lopinavir +ritonavir for increasing viral clearance
Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full review Benefits and harms COVID NMA. Novaferon + Lopinavir + Ritonavir vs Lopinavir + Ritonavir. 2020. 
   2021-10-1510/11No[Novaferon vs lopinavir + ritonavir] See comparison under anti-virals/lopinavir + ritonavir vs novaferon
Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full review Benefits and harms COVID NMA. Novaferon vs Lopinavir + Ritonavir. 2020.
   2021-10-1510/11Yes[Peginterferon lambda-1] The benefnits of using peginterferon lamda-1 in mild COVID-19 outpatients are currently uncertain, while it may not increase serious adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full review Benefits and harms COVID NMA. Peginterferon Lambda-1 vs placebo. 2020. 
   2021-10-1510/11Yes [Recombinant super-compound interferon(RSIFN-co)] The effects of RSIFN-co compared to IFN-alpha are uncertain Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full review
Benefits and harms
COVID NMA. rSIFN-co vs IFN-alpha. 2020.
   2021-09-307/10Yes[Regdanvimab] Using regdanvimab may improve time to symptom resolution, but its effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 5 August 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-06-1711/11Yes[Regdanvimab] Among non-hospitalized COVID-19 patients, regdanvimab may reduce hospital admissions or death, and it may increase the risk of serious adverse events; its effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full reviewBenefits and harmsKreuzberger N, Hirsch C, Chai KL, Piechotta V, Valk SJ, Estcourt LJ, et al. SARS‐CoV‐2‐neutralising monoclonal antibodies for treatment of COVID‐19. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2021.
   2021-09-307/10Yes[REGEN-COV] REGEN-COV (casirivimab and imdevimab) probably reduces hospitalization and improves time to symptom resolution without increasing severe adverse events in patients with mild COVID-19Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 5 August 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-06-1711/11Yes[REGEN-COV (casirivimab and imdevimab)] Casirimab + imdevimab may substantially reduce hospital admissions or death, while its safety and effects on other outcomes are uncertain among non-hospitalized COVID-19 patients; in hospitalized patients, it probably has little to no effect on mortality, clinical progressions and duration of hospitalizationYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full reviewBenefits and harmsKreuzberger N, Hirsch C, Chai KL, Piechotta V, Valk SJ, Estcourt LJ, et al. SARS‐CoV‐2‐neutralising monoclonal antibodies for treatment of COVID‐19. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2021.
   2021-10-1510/11 Yes [Sarilumab] Using sarilumab for hospitalized COVID-19 patients may slightly reduce mortality ay 28 days, it probably makes little or no difference in clinical improvement and may not have an effect on disease progression; it may also slighly increase adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full review Benefits and harms COVID NMA. Sarilumab vs standard care. 2020.
   2021-01-07 9/11Yes [Sarilumab] The effects of sarilumab for COVID-19 patients are uncertainNo Full review Benefits and harms Khan F, Stewart I, Fabbri L, Moss S, Robinson K, Smyth AR, et al. A systematic review of Anakinra, Sarilumab, Siltuximab with meta-analysis of Tocilizumab for Covid-19. Thorax. 2020. 
   2021-02-12
10/11 Yes [Sarilumab] Interleukin-6 inhibitors probably reduce mechanical ventilation and may reduce hospitalization length in hypoxic hospitalized COVID-19 patients, while it may have some benefits on mortality Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full review Benefits and harms Siemieniuk R, Bartoszko JJ, Ge L, Zeraatkar D, Izcovich A, Kum E, et al. Update to living systematic review on drug treatments for covid-19. BMJ. 2021;370:m2980.
   2021-02-26
9/11 Yes [Sarilumab] Compared to standard care, sarilumab may make little or no difference in mortality, and time to clinical improvement, while probably does not increase adverse events in severe and critical patients Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full review Benefits and harms Ghosn L, Chaimani A, Evrenoglou T,  Davidson M, Graña C, Schmucker C, et al. Interleukin‐6 blocking agents for treating COVID‐19: A living systematic review. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2021.  
   2021-09-307/10Yes[Sarilumab] Sarilumab may not reduce mortality and it may reduce mechanical ventilation requirements without increasing severe adverse events in patients with severe COVID-19 diseaseYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 5 August 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-09-307/10Yes[Secukinumab] The effects of using secukinumab to treat COVID-19 patients are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 5 August 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-01-07
9/11Yes [Siltuximab] The effects of siltuximab for COVID-19 patients are uncertainNoFull review Benefits and harms Khan F, Stewart I, Fabbri L, Moss S, Robinson K, Smyth AR, et al. A systematic review of Anakinra, Sarilumab, Siltuximab with meta-analysis of Tocilizumab for Covid-19. Thorax. 2020. 
   2021-09-307/10Yes[Siltuximab] The effects of siltuximab for COVID-19 patients are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 5 August 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-02-12
10/11Yes [Tocilizumab] Interleukin-6 inhibitors probably reduce mechanical ventilation and may reduce hospitalization length in hypoxic hospitalized COVID-19 patients, while it may have some benefits on mortalityYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full review Benefits and harms Siemieniuk R, Bartoszko JJ, Ge L, Zeraatkar D, Izcovich A, Kum E, et al. Update to living systematic review on drug treatments for covid-19. BMJ. 2021;370:m2980.
   2021-10-1510/11 Yes [Tocilizumab] Among hospitalized patients, tocilizumab reduces mortality at 28 days, it may slightly reduce mortality at 60 days, and it probably slightly increases the incidence of clinical improvement; it probably does not increase serious adverse events
Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Tocilizumab vs Standard care/Placebo. 2021.
   2021-09-307/10Yes[Sotrovimab] In patients with mild COVID-19 patients, sotrovimab probably reduces hospitalization and improves time to symptom resolution without increasing severe adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 5 August 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-06-1711/11Yes[Sotrovimab] Among non-hospitalized COVID-19 patients, sotrovimab may substantially reduce oxygen requirement and hospital admissions or death, while it may not increase serious adverse events; its effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full reviewBenefits and harmsKreuzberger N, Hirsch C, Chai KL, Piechotta V, Valk SJ, Estcourt LJ, et al. SARS‐CoV‐2‐neutralising monoclonal antibodies for treatment of COVID‐19. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2021.
   2021-09-307/10Yes[Tocilizumab] Using tocilizumab in patients with severe COVID-19 disease reduces mortality and the need for mechanical ventilation, whereas it does not importantly increase severe adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 5 August 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-02-049/11No[Tocilizumab] Tocilizumab reduces the risk of mechanical ventilation, probably reduces the risk of secondary infections in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, and has uncertain effects on mortalityYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full reviewBenefits and harmsTleyjeh IM, Kashour Z, Riaz M, Hassett L, Veiga VC, Kashour T. Efficacy and safety of tocilizumab in COVID-19 patients: A living systematic review and meta-analysis: First update. Clinical Microbiology and Infection. 2021. Epub ahead of print.
   2021-02-269/11 Yes [Tocilizumab] Compared to standard care, tocilizumab slightly reduces 28-day mortality, may not have an effect on 60-day mortality, probably may slightly increase clinical improvement and it probably does not increase serious adverse events Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full review Benefits and harms Ghosn L, Chaimani A, Evrenoglou T,  Davidson M, Graña C, Schmucker C, et al. Interleukin‐6 blocking agents for treating COVID‐19: A living systematic review. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2021.  
  Others2021-10-1510/11Yes [a-Lipoic acid] It is uncertain whether a-Lipoic acid has any differential effects compared with placebo due to very low certainty evidence
Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full review Benefits and harmsCOVID NMA. a-Lipoic Acid vs Placebo. 2020. 
   2020-07-316/6Yes[ACE inhibitors and ARB] No evidence was found evaluating the effects of using angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers for COVID-19 treatmentYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full reviewBenefits and harmsMeza N, Pérez-Bracchiglione J, Pérez I, Carvajal C, Ortiz-Muñoz L, Olguín P, et al. Angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers for COVID-19: A living systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Medwave. 2021;21(2):e8105.
   2021-10-1510/11Yes[Aspirin] Among hospitalized patients, aspirin may slightly reduce mortality and makes little or no difference in clinical improvementYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Aspirin vs Standard care. 2021.
   2021-04-168/11Yes[Aspirin] Active prescription of low-dose aspirin may reduce mortality among COVID-19 patients during or prior to hospitalizationNoFull reviewBenefits and harmsMartha JW, Pranata R, Lim MA, Wibowo A, Akbar MR. Active prescription of low-dose aspirin during or prior to hospitalization and mortality in COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis of adjusted effect estimates. Int J Infect Dis. 2021;108:6-12. 
   2021-10-1510/11Yes [Bromhexine] The effects of bromhexine are uncertain Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full review Benefits and harms COVID NMA. Bromhexine vs standard care. 2020.
   2021-05-116/9No[Camostat] Although several trials are ongoing, the only one that has been finished shows no benefit of camostat among hospitalized patientsYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full reviewBenefits and harmsEUnetHTA Rolling Collaborative Review (RCR04). Authoring Team. Camostat for the treatment of Covid-19. Diemen (The Netherlands): EUnetHTA; 2021.
   2020-04-23
5/5 Yes [Cell-based therapies] No evidence was found on the effects of cell-based therapies for COVID-19
Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full review Benefits and harms Rada G, Corbalan J, Rojas P. Cell-based therapies for COVID-19: A living systematic review. Medwave. 2020;20(11):e8079.
   2021-10-1510/11Yes [Colony-stimulating factor] Adding recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor to standard care may reduce mortality and increase adverse events Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full review
Benefits and harms COVID NMA. Recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor vs standard care. 2020.
   2021-10-1510/11Yes [C1 esterase inhibitor] The effects of adding C1 esterase/kallikrein inhibitor to standard care are uncertain Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full review
Benefits and harms
COVID NMA. C1 Esterase/Kallikrein inhibitor vs standard care. 2020.
   2021-09-307/10Yes[Dapagliflozin] In hospitalized COVID-19 patients with cardiometabolic risk factors, dapagliflozin may reduce mortality, but probably does not improve symptom resolutionYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 5 August 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-09-307/10Yes[Dimethyl sulfoxide (DSMO)] The effects of using DSMO to treat COVID-19 patients are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 5 August 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-10-1510/11 Yes Compared to therapeutic anticoagulants, using prophylactic anticoagulants may make little or no difference in mortality, and probably does not have an effect on clinical improvementYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full review Benefits and harms COVID NMA. Therapeutic enoxaparin vs prophylactic anticoagulant. 2020. 
   2020-09-208/11Yes [Famotidine] The effects of famotidine for COVID-19 patients are uncertain
NoFull reviewBenefits and harmsSethia R, Prasad M, Jagannath S, Nischal N, Soneja M, Garg P, et al. Efficacy of Famotidine for COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. medRxiv. 2020.
   2021-09-307/10Yes[Famotidine] The effects of famotidine for COVID-19 patients are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 5 August 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-09-307/10Yes[Fluvoxamine] Among COVOID-19 mild patients, fluvoxamine probably reduces hospitalizations and it may not increase adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing living update of COVID-19 therapeutic options: Summary of evidence. Rapid review, 30 September 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-09-307/10Yes[Melatonin] The effects of using melatonin to treat COVID-19 patients are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 5 August 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-05-116/9Yes[Nafamostat]The effects of nafamostat cannot yet be assessed; upcoming studies are expected to be published soonYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full reviewBenefits and harmsEUnetHTA Rolling Collaborative Review (RCR05) Authoring Team. Nafamostat for the treatment of COVID-19. Diemen (The Netherlands): EUnetHTA; 2021.
   2021-10-1510/11Yes [Oxygen-ozone] The effects of adding oxygen-ozone therapy to standard care are uncertain Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full review
Benefits and harms
COVID NMA. Oxygen-ozone vs standard care. 2020.
   2021-09-307/10Yes[Proxalutamide] Using proxalutamide may reduce mortality, mechanical ventilation, and may improve time to symptom resolution in COVID-19 patientsYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 5 August 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-09-307/10Yes[Quercetin] The effects of using quercetin to treat COVID-19 patients are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 5 August 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-09-307/10Yes[Sitagliptin] The effects of using sitagliptin to treat COVID-19 patients are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 5 August 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-05-116/9Yes[Solnative] The effects of solnatide cannot yet be assessed; upcoming studies are expected to be published soonYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full reviewBenefits and harmsEUnetHTA Rolling Collaborative Review (RCR06) Authoring Team. Solnatide for the treatment of COVID-19. Diemen (The Netherlands): EUnetHTA; 2021
   2021-09-307/10Yes[Spironolactone] The effects of using spironolactone to treat COVID-19 patients are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 5 August 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2020-07-27
7/10 No [Statins] Statins have shown to reduce fatal or severe disease in COVID-19 patients [Review of observational studies of unclear quality]NoFull review Benefits and harms Kow CS & Hasan SS. Meta-analysis of effect of statins in patients with COVID-19. The American Journal of Cardiology. 2020.  
   2021-10-1510/11Yes [Stem cells] In hospitalized patients, human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell infusion may slightly increase the incidence of clinical improvement, and it may not increase adverse events; its effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full review
Benefits and harms
COVID NMA. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell infusion vs standard care/placebo. 2020.
   2021-10-1510/11Yes [Vitamin C] The effects of using vitamin C in hospitalized COVID-19 patients are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full review
Benefits and harms
COVID NMA. Vitamin C vs standard of care/placebo. 2020.
   2021-02-12
10/11 Yes [Vitamin C] Vitamin C may slightly reduce mortality, and may not have an effect on duration of hospitalization; its effects on other outcomes are uncertain Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full review Benefits and harms Siemieniuk R, Bartoszko JJ, Ge L, Zeraatkar D, Izcovich A, Kum E, et al. Update to living systematic review on drug treatments for covid-19. BMJ. 2021;370:m2980.
   2021-10-1510/11Yes [Vitamin D] The effects of using vitamin D are uncertain and it may increase adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full review
Benefits and harms
COVID NMA. Vitamin D vs standard care/placebo. 2020.
   2021-02-12
10/11Yes[Vitamin D] Vitamin D may not reduce mortality, and it may reduce mechanical ventilation, whereas it probably does not have an effect on duration of hospitalization Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full review Benefits and harms Siemieniuk R, Bartoszko JJ, Ge L, Zeraatkar D, Izcovich A, Kum E, et al. Update to living systematic review on drug treatments for covid-19. BMJ. 2021;370:m2980.
   2021-03-119/10Yes[Vitamin D] Vitamin D may reduce the need for invasive mechanical ventilation in moderate to severe patients; its effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full reviewBenefits and harmsStroehlein JK, Wallqvist J, Iannizzi C, Mikolajewska A, Metzendorf MI, Benstoem C, et al. Vitamin D supplementation for the treatment of COVID-19: A living systematic review. Cochrane Database of Systematic Rev.iews 2021;5:CD015043. 
   2021-05-057/9Yes[Vitamin D] High-dose vitamin D may not have an effect on mortality, whereas it probably reduces the rate of ICU admission and it may reduce the rate of mechanical ventilationYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full reviewBenefits and harmsEUnetHTA Rolling Collaborative Review (RCR20) Authoring Team. High-Dose Vitamin D for the treatment of COVID-19. Diemen (The Netherlands): EUnetHTA; 2021.
   2021-10-1510/11Yes[Zinc] The effects of using zinc in hospitalized COVID-19 patients are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Zinc vs standard care/placebo. 2021.
   2021-10-1510/11 Yes [Zinc] The effects of adding zinc to hydroxychloroquine therapy are uncertain Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full review Benefits and harms COVID NMA. Hydroxychloroquine+Zinc vs Hydroxychloroquine. 2020.
 Blood products
        
  Convalescent plasma
2021-10-1510/11Yes In hospitalized patients, adding convalescent plasma to standard care probably does not have an effect on mortality at 28 days and clinical improvement, while it may make little or no difference in disease progression; it may slightly increase serious adverse events and probably increases any adverse event
Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full review Benefits and harms COVID NMA. Convalescent Plasma vs Standard Care. 2020. 
   2021-03-178/10Yes Convalescent plasma does not reduce mortality and has little or no difference in clinical improvement in patients with moderate to severe COVID-19; the incidence of adverse events is uncertain
Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full review Benefits and harms Piechotta V, Iannizzi C, Chai KL, Valk SJ, Kimber C, Dorando E, et al. Convalescent plasma or hyperimmune immunoglobulin for people with COVID‐19: A living systematic review. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.2021(5). 
   2021-09-307/10YesAmong hospitalized COVID-19 patients, using convalescent plasma probably does not reduce mortality, the need for mechanical ventilation, or the time to symptom resolution, while it probably increases severe adverse events; among mild patients, it may not reduce hospitalizationsYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 5 August 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-10-1510/11Yes The effects of using early vs deferred convalescent plasma in COVID-19 patients are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full review Benefits and harms COVID NMA. Early convalescent plasma vs deferred convalescent plasma. 2020. 
  Hyperimmune immunoglobulin2021-03-17
8/10YesNo completed trials have been found evaluating the effects of hyperimmune immunoglobulin for patients with COVID-19
Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full reviewBenefits and harmsPiechotta V, Iannizzi C, Chai KL, Valk SJ, Kimber C, Dorando E, et al. Convalescent plasma or hyperimmune immunoglobulin for people with COVID‐19: A living systematic review. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.2021(5). 
   2021-10-1510/11YesAmong patients hospitalized with COVID-19, intravenous immunoglobulin may increase clinical improvement and reduce disease progression substantially; the effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Intravenous Immunoglobulin vs Standard care/Placebo. 2021.
 Ventilation for COVID-19         
  Invasive ventilation 
2020-07-11
6/11 Yes A systematic review including studies of patients with COVID-19, MERS and SARS, showed that the effects of non invasive ventilation, compared to invasive mechanical ventilation are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full review Benefits and harms Thomas R, Lotfi T, Morgano GP, Darzi A, Reinap M, COVID-19 Systematic Urgent Review Group Effort (SURGE) Study Authors. Update alert 2: Ventiliation techniques and risk for transmission of coronavirus disease, including COVID-19. Annals of Internal Medicine 2020;L20-1211.
   2020-05-15
7/9 Yes It is uncertain whether a higher or lower oxygen target is more beneficial for COVID-19 patients under invasive mechanical ventilation or in an intensive care unitNo Rapid review Benefits and harms Cumpstey AF, Oldman AH, Smith AF, Martin D, Grocott MP. Oxygen targets in the intensive care unit during mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory distress syndrome: A rapid review. Cochrane Database Systematic Review. 2020;9:CD013708. 
   2020-07-08
9/11 No The case fatality rate for COVID-19 patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation varied greatly but the mean was 45% increasing markedly in older patients  [Review of studies of unclear quality]No Full review Other Lim ZJ, Subramaniam A, Reddy MP, Blecher G, Kadam U, Afroz A, et al. Case fatality rates for COVID-19 patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation: A meta-analysis. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 2020.  
   2020-09-27
8/11 No Around half of patients requiring tracheotomy have been successfully weaned off of mechanical ventilation, while over one third of tracheotomized patients have undergone succesful decannulation [Review of observational studies of variable quality and with substantial heterogeneity in results]No Full review Other Benito DA, Bestourous DE, Tong JY, Pasick LJ, Sataloff RT. Tracheotomy in COVID-19 patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis of weaning, decannulation, and survival. Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery. 2021.  
   2020-12-267/11NoIt is uncertain whether the timing of intubation might have an effect on mortality, length of stay, and duration of mechanical ventilation of critically ill patients with COVID-19 [Review of observational studies of moderate heterogeneity for some of the outcomes]NoFull reviewBenefits and harmsPapoutsi E, Giannakoulis VG, Xourgia E, Routsi C, Kotanidou A, Siempos II. Effect of timing of intubation on clinical outcomes of critically ill patients with COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis of non-randomized cohort studies. Crit Care. 2021;25(121). 
   2021-03-045/11NoTracheostomy has been associated with reduced mortality and shortened ICU stay among COVID-19 patients [Review of studies of variable quality with important heterogeneity among some of their findings]NoFull reviewBenefits and harmsStaibano P, Levin M, McHugh T, Gupta M, Sommer DD. Association of tracheostomy with outcomes in patients with COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2 transmission among health care professionals: A systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery. 2021.
  Non-invasive ventilation2020-05-01
7/10 Yes A systematic review including studies of patients with COVID-19, MERS and SARS showed that non-invasive ventilation, compared with no mechanical ventilation, may reduce mortality, but may increase the risk of COVID-19 transmission to healthcare workers Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full review Benefits and harms Schünemann HJ, Khabsa J, Solo K, Khamis AM, Brignardello-Petersen R, El-Harakeh A, et al. Ventilation techniques and risk for transmission of coronavirus disease, including COVID-19: A living systematic review of multiple streams of evidence. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2020;173(3):204-216. 
   2020-05-14
9/10 YesAlthough no studies were found for COVID-19 patients, indirect evidence shows that high-flow nasal cannual may reduce the need for invasive ventilation, and probably has little or no difference in mortality and length of stayNoRapid reviewBenefits and harmsAgarwal A, Basmaji J, Muttalib F, et al. High-flow nasal cannula for acute hypoxemic respiratory failure in patients with COVID-19: systematic reviews of effectiveness and its risks of aerosolization, dispersion, and infection transmission [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jun 15]. Les canules nasales à haut débit pour le traitement de l’insuffisance respiratoire hypoxémique aiguë chez les patients atteints de la COVID-19: comptes rendus systématiques de l’efficacité et des risques d’aérosolisation, de dispersion et de transmission de l’infection [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jun 15]. Can J Anaesth. 2020;1-32. doi:10.1007/s12630-020-01740-2
   N/A (Protocol)
n/a Yes [Protocol - results not yet available] A systematic review exploring the safety and efficacy of high-flow cannulae, continuous positive pressure, non-invasive mechanical ventilation by face mask, low-cost ventilators and ventilator spacers compared with conventional invasive mechanical ventilation treatment for the management of acute respiratory distress syndrome due to viral pneumonia is currently being conductedNo Protocol Benefits and harms Carreno HL, Prieto SA, Gaitan Alfonso JA, Abondano D, Cardenas YR, Yepe JJ. Alternatives to Invasive Mechanical Ventilation for
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome due to Viral Pneumonia: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. PROSPERO. 2020. 
   N/A (Protocol)n/aYes[Protocol - results not yet available] A review evaluating the effects of postextubation high-flow nasal cannula on reintubation and postextubation respiratory failure in COVID-19 patients is currently being conductedNoProtocolBenefits and harmsDong Z & Yang L. Effect of postextubation high-flow nasal cannula on reintubation and postextubation respiratory failure in acute hypoxemic patients with COVID-19: A protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis. PROSPERO. 2021; CRD42021236519
  Proning2020-08-15
8/11 No Awake prone positioning in non-intubated patients has not been compared directly to non-prone positioning in randomized trials, but studies that examined awake prone positioning tended to have higher oxygenation but not lower mortality or intubation than studies that examined non-prone positioning [Review of observational studies with substantial heterogeneity]No Full review Benefits and harms Pavlov I, He H, McNicholas B, Perez Y, Tavernier E, Trump MW, et al. Awake prone positioning in non-intubated patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure due to COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis. 2021. 
   2020-11-098/11NoAlthough important heterogeneity was found among studies (given the unstandardized processes for proning), prone position of non-intubated adult patients showed a significant improvement in oxygenation parameters and respiratory rateNoFull reviewBenefits and harmsPonnapa Reddy M, Subramaniam A, Afroz A, Billah B, Lim ZJ, Zubarev A, Blecher G, Tiruvoipati R, Ramanathan K, Wong SN, Brodie D, Fan E, Shekar K. Prone Positioning of Nonintubated Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019-A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Critical Care Medicine. 2021.
   2021-10-1510/11YesThe effects of prone position for the treatment of COVID-19 patients that are not being mechanicall ventilated are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Prone position vs Standard care. 2021.
   2021-03-0111/11YesurlNoFull reviewBenefits and harmsChua EX, Zahir SMISM, Ng KT, Teoh WY, Hasan MS, Ruslan SRB, et al. Effect of prone versus supine position in COVID-19 patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Anesthesia. 2021;74:110406.
  Other treatments for COVID-192021-04-205/10NoAmong severe/critical COVID-19 patients, evidence has shown a slight increase in oxygenation in patients receiving nitric oxide, but no effect on mortality has been reported [Review of mainly observational studies of unclear quality]NoFull reviewBenefits and harmsPrakash A, Kaur S, Kaur C, Prabha PK, Bhatacharya A, Sarma P, et al. Efficacy and safety of inhaled nitric oxide in the treatment of severe/critical COVID-19 patients: A systematic review. Indian Journal of Pharmacology. 2021;53(3):236-243.
   2021-09-307/10Yes[Stem cells] Mesenchymal stem cells transplantation may reduce mortality in severe to critical COVID-19 patientsYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 5 August 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-10-1510/11Yes[Photobiomodulation therapy] Using photobiomodulation therapy may reduce mortality; the effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Photobiomodulation therapy vs Standard care/Placebo. 2021.
   2021-09-307/10Yes[Probiotics] The effects of using probiotics to treat COVID-19 patients are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 5 August 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
 Other aspects of critical care for COVID-19         
  Management of cardiovascular complications2020-06-2010/11YesProphylactic doses of anticoagulants in people hospitalized with COVID-19 may reduce mortality but increase major bleeding events, compared to patients receiving anticoagulants as therapeutic dose
NoRapid reviewBenefits and harmsFlumignan RLG, Tinôco JD, Pascoal PIF, Areias LL, Cossi MS, Fernandes MICD, et al. Prophylactic anticoagulants for people hospitalised with COVID‐19. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2020;10:Art. No.: CD013739. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD013739.
   2020-08-26
9/11 No The prevalence of venous thromboembolism among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 is high, with ICU patients at increased riskNo Full review Other Nopp S, Moik F, Jilma B, Pabinger I, Ay C. Risk of venous thromboembolism in patients with COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Research and Practice in Thrombosis and haemostasis. 2020. 
   2020-07-15
7/11 No Cardiac injury was observed in 23% of hospitalized patients with COVID-19, and seems to be more common among patients older than 60 and people with severe disease [Review of studies of unknown quality]No Full review Other Fu L, Liu X, Su Y, Ma J, Hong K. Prevalence and impact of cardiac injury on COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical Cardiology. 2020.  
   2020-08-018/11 No Among COVID-19 patients requiring admission to an ICU, vasopressor support was required in more than two-thirds of the cases [Review of observational studies of variable quality] No Full review OtherTan E, Song J, Deane AM, Plummer MP. Global impact of COVID-19 infection requiring admission to the intensive care unit: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Chest. 2020. 
   2020-08-01
6/11 No The incidence of COVID-19-related myocardial injury has been estimated to range from 16.1% to 23.8% and was higher in men, older people and people with comorbidities [Review of studies of unknown quality and substantial heterogeneity]No Full review Other Prasitlumkum N, Chokesuwattanaskul R, Thongprayoon C, Bathini T, Vallabhajosyula S, Cheungpasitporn W. Incidence of myocardial injury in COVID-19-infected patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Diseases. 2020;8(4):E40. 
   N/A (Protocol)
n/a Yes [Protocol - results not yet available] A review exploring risk factors for the development of new onset cardiovascular complications of COVID-19 is currently being conductedNo Protocol Other Ryan B, Kirk M, Boland F, Flood M, Kerrigan S. Risk factors for development of new onset cardiovascular complications in COVID-19 patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PROSPERO. 2021; CRD42021232046. 
   2021-10-1510/11YesCompared to standard-dose prophylactic coagulation, using intermediate-dose prophylactic anticoagulation may make little or no difference in terms of mortality, while it probably does not have an effect on clinical improvementYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Intermediate-dose prophylactic anticoagulation vs standard-dose prophylactic anticoagulation. 2021.
   2021-10-1510/11YesCompared to prophylactic anticoagulants, using therapeutic anticoagulants probably makes little or no difference in clinical improvement, and it may not reduce disease progression among hospitalized COVID-19 patientsYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Therapeutic anticoagulant vs prophylactic anticoagulant. 2021.
   2021-09-307/10YesUsing intermediate or full dose of prophylactic anticoagulation probably does not have a difference in mortalityYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing Living Update of COVID-19 Therapeutic Options: Summary of Evidence. Rapid Review, 5 August 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2020-10-287/11NoWhereas the incidence of ischemic stroke among all COVID-19 patients has been estimated at 1.76%, severe COVID-19 patients are at higher risks of developing ischemic stroke [Review of studies of moderate quality]NoFull reviewOtherLu Y, Zhao JJ, Ye MF, Li HM, Yao FR, Kong Y et al. The relationship between COVID-19's severity and ischemic stroke: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Neurol Sci. 2021:1–7. 
   2021-03-108/11NoWhile atrial fibrillation was observed in a highly variable range of COVID-19 patients, being older, hypertensive, diabetic, having cardiovascular diseases and critical clinical status were all associated with a higher frequency of the condition and a four times increase in mortality rates [Review of studies of low to moderate quality and important heterogeneity among their findings]NoFull reviewOtherRomiti GF, Corica B, Lip GYH, Proietti M. Prevalence and impact of atrial fibrillation in hospitalized patients with COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2021;10(11):2490.
   2020-11-138/11NoAlthough venous thromboembolism is a frequent outcome in critical COVID-19 patients (almost 3 times more likely than non-ICU patients), non-critical patients are still at significant risk [Review of studies of unclear quality and important heterogeneity among their findings]NoFull reviewOtherMansory EM, Srigunapalan S, Lazo-Langner A. Venous thromboembolism in hospitalized critical and noncritical COVID-19 patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis. TH Open. 2021;5(3):e286-e294.
   2021-01-154/9NoNormal echocardiographic examination has been reported in the majority of COVID-19 critical patients, with inconsistent reports on ventricular dysfunction among studies [Review of studies of unclear quality]NoFull reviewOtherMessina A, Sanfilippo F, Milani A, Calabrò L, Negri K, Monge García MI, et al. COVID-19-related echocardiographic patterns of cardiovascular dysfunction in critically ill patients: A systematic review of the current literature. Journal of Critical Care. 2021;65:26-35.
  Management of renal complications 2020-05-157/11No The effects of using renal replacement therapy for COVID-19 patients are uncertain
No Full reviewBenefits and harms Abdelrahman Z, Liu Q, Jiang S, Li M, Zhang Y, Wang X. Evaluation of the current therapeutic approaches for COVID-19: A meta-analysis. Frontiers in Pharmacology. 2020.
   2020-08-018/11 No Among COVID-19 patients requiring admission to an ICU, renal replacement therapy was required in one-fifth of the cases [Review of observational studies of variable quality]No Full review Other Tan E, Song J, Deane AM, Plummer MP. Global impact of COVID-19 infection requiring admission to the intensive care unit: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Chest. 2020. 
   2020-07-25
7/11 No Acute kidney injury frequently occurs among COVID-19 patients, and it is more common among patients in that are hospitalized in ICU [Review of observational studies of variable quality] No Full review Other Yang X, Tian S, Guo H. Acute kidney injury and renal replacement therapy in COVID-19 patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis. International Immunopharmacology. 2020.  
   2020-06-16
9/11 Yes Around one-tenth of patients infected with coronaviruses experience acute kidney injury, which has been found to be associated with mortality rate [Review of observational studies of moderate quality conducted during COVID-19, MERS and SARS outbreaks]No Full review Other Zhou S, Xu J, Xue C, Yang B, Mao Z, Ong ACM. Coronavirus-associated kidney outcomes in COVID-19, SARS, and MERS: A meta-analysis and systematic review. Renal Failure. 2020;43(1):1-15. 
   N/A (Protocol)
n/a Yes [Protocol - results not yet available] A review exploring the nephrological and urological complications of COVID-19 is currently being conductedNo Protocol Other Tristao LS, Bernardo WM. Nephrological and urological complications of COVID-19: a systematic review. PROSPERO. 2020;CRD42020206155. 
  Management of respiratory complications2020-08-01
8/11NoSubstantial heterogeneity was found among studies reporting the incidence of acute pulmonary embolism, but among hospitalized COVID-19 patients the risk seems to be higher for ICU patients [Review of observational studies]No Full review Other Roncon L, Zuin M, Barco S, Valerio L, Zuliani G, Zonzin P, et al. Incidence of acute pulmonary embolism in COVID-19 patients: Systematic review and meta-analysis. European Journal of Internal Medicine. 2020;S0953-6205(20)30349-6.  
   2020-08-01
8/11 No Among COVID-19 patients requiring admission to an ICU, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was required in 6.4% of the cases [Review of observational studies of variable quality]No Full review Other Tan E, Song J, Deane AM, Plummer MP. Global impact of COVID-19 infection requiring admission to the intensive care unit: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Chest. 2020. 
   N/A (Protocol)n/aNo[Protocol - results not yet available] A review evaluating the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for COVID-19 pneumonia is currently being conductedYes (row content last checked on 2021-08-30)ProtocolBenefits and harmsSingh S, Khera D, Chugh A, Khera P. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in COVID-19 pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2: A live systematic review and meta-analysis. PROSPERO. 2020; CRD42020192159
   2020-09-308/11NoDespite the use of anticoagulants in prophylactic dosage, pulmonary thromboembolism was estimated to be 11.1% among COVID-19 patients admitted to ICU [Review of studies of low to moderate quality with an important heterogeneity among their findings]NoFull reviewOtherNg JJ, Liang ZC, Choon AMTL. The incidence of pulmonary thromboembolism in COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit: A meta-analysis and meta-regression of observational studies. Journal of Intensive Care. 2021;9(1):20. 
   2021-01-305/10NoThe incidence of pneumothorax among COVID-19 patients is reported as 0.3%, but it substantially increased to 12-24% for COVID-19 patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation, and it is likely produced due to the inflammatory insult from COVID-19 [Review of studies of mainly moderate quality]NoFull reviewOtherChong WH, Saha BK, Hu K, Chopra A. The incidence, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of pneumothorax in hospitalized COVID-19 patients: A systematic review. Heart Lung. 2021;50(5):599-608.
  Management of other complications2020-05-155/10NoLimited evidence is available to evaluate whether COVID-19 could be an etiological factor in acute pancreatitis [Review of observational studies of low quality]NoFull reviewOtherFélix Juhász M, Ocskay K, Kiss S, Hegyi P, Párniczky A. Insufficient etiological workup of COVID-19-associated acute pancreatitis: A systematic review. World Journal of Gastroenterology. 2020;26(40):6270-6278.
   2020-04-107/11NoThe use of personal protective equipment among patients may slightly extend the duration of intravascular access procedures, while intraosseous access may provide an alternative approach in some circumstancesNoFull reviewOtherDrozd A, Smereka J, Filipiak KJ, Jaguszewski M, Ładny JR, Bielski K, et al. Intraosseous versus intravenous access while wearing personal protective equipment: A meta-analysis in the era of COVID-19. Kardiologia Polska. 2021. 
   2020-08-316/11NoEvidence shows that most liver enzyme levels are not affected by SARS-CoV-2 infection (including transaminases and bilirrubin levels) [Review of observational studies and case reports of unknown quality]NoFull reviewOtherBzeizi K, Abdulla M, Mohammed N, Alqamish J, Jamshidi N, Broering D. Effect of COVID-19 on liver abnormalities: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Sci Rep. 2021;11(1):10599. 
   2021-04-304/9NoThe mechanism for liver injury due to COVID-19 infection involves hepatoxicity by therapeutic agents, liver damage caused by the virus, and hepatic ischemia caused by hypoxia and cytokine storm syndrome, among others [Review of studies of unknown quality]NoFull reviewOtherMcGrowder DA; Miller F; Anderson Cross M; Anderson-Jackson L; Bryan S; Dilworth L. Abnormal liver biochemistry tests and acute liver injury in COVID-19 patients: Current evidence and potential pathogenesis. Preprints. 2021.
   2020-12-018/11NoDelirium has often been observed among COVID-19 patients and has been associated with higher mortality, while the prevalence of delirium is higher among patients who are 65 years or older [Review of studies of mainly moderate quality]NoFull reviewOtherShao SC, Lai CC, Chen YH, Chen YC, Hung MJ, Liao SC. Prevalence, incidence and mortality of delirium in patients with COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Age and Ageing. 2021;afab103.
   2020-11-015/10NoThe evidence is unclear as to whether COVID-19 can cause acute pancreatitis or affect the prognosis of those suffering from the condition [Review of studies of unclear quality]NoFull reviewOtherCorreia de Sá T, Soares C, Rocha M. Acute pancreatitis and COVID-19: A literature review. World Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery. 2021;13(6):574-584.
   2021-05-237/11NoEvidence showed that photobiomodulation and antimicrobial photodynamic therapy may reduce oral manifestations among patients with COVID-19 [Review of observational studies of moderate quality]NoFull reviewBenefits and harmsPacheco JA, Molena KF, Martins CROG, Corona SAM, Borsatto MC. Photobiomodulation (PBMT) and antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) in oral manifestations of patients infected by SARS-CoV-2: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Research Square. 2021.
   2021-03-297/11NoEvidence shows that COVID-19 related viral sepsis can occur in a significant proportion of patients, and 77% of ICU-admitted patients have viral sepsis [Review of studies of low to moderate quality with important heterogeneity among their findings]NoFull reviewOtherKarakike E, Giamarellos-Bourboulis EJ, Kyprianou M, Fleischmann-Struzek C, Pletz MW, Netea MG, et al. Coronavirus disease 2019 as cause of viral sepsis: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Critical Care Medicine. 2021.
 Community-based treatment of COVID-19 and community-based home monitoring2020-04-02 4/9 No Community-centered care including screening, isolating suspected cases, managing mild cases, and providing care for recovered COVID-19 patients can help to reduce pressure on hospitals No Rapid review Other El-Jardali F, Fadlallah R, Daher N, Jabbour M. K2P COVID-19 Rapid response series: Suppressing COVID-19 epidemic through community-centered care approach. Beirut, Lebanon: Knowledge to Policy (K2P) Center; 2020.  
  N/A (Protocol)
n/a No [Protocol - results not yet available] A review evaluating nutritional interventions for transitioning patients with COVID-19 into the community after discharge from hospital is currently being conductedNo Protocol Other Weekes E, Hickson M, Murphy J, Frost G, Julian A, Latif J. In patients hospitalised with COVID-19 infection, what is the best way of ensuring continuity of nutritional care on hospital discharge to minimise the nutritional consequences of infection and optimise recovery? PROSPERO. 2020; CRD42020208448. 
 Complementary and alternative therapies2020-07-27
7/11 No [Chinese herbal medicine] Lianhua Qingwen combined with conventional drugs may improve symptoms of common pneumonia and COVID-19 pneumonia [Review of studies of variable risk of bias]No Full review Benefits and harms Hu C, Liang M, Gong F, He B, Zhao D, Zhang G. Efficacy of lianhua qingwen compared with conventional drugs in the treatment of common pneumonia and COVID-19 pneumonia: A meta-analysis. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2020. 
  N/A (Protocol)
n/a No [Protocol - results not yet available] A review evaluating the integration of Chinese and western medicine for the prophylaxis and treatment of COVID-19 is currently being conducted Yes (row content last checked on 2021-08-30)Protocol Benefits and harms Wang Q, Li M, Zhu H, Yang Q, Cao X, Ge L. Treatment and prophylaxis of integrating Chinese and western medicine of COVID-19: A living systematic review and meta-analysis. PROSPERO. 2020;CRD42020218802. 
  N/A (Protocol)
n/a Yes [Protocol - results not yet available] A review evaluating the impact of AYUSH (ayurveda, yoga, naturopathy, unani, siddha, sowa riga, and homeopathy) interventions on COVID-19 is currently being conducted Yes (row content last checked on 2021-08-30)Protocol Benefits and harms Thakar A, Goyal M, Panara K, Kumari R. Impact of AYUSH interventions on Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19): a living systematic review and meta-analysis. PROSPERO. 2021;CRD42021244831. 
  2021-02-099/11YesChinese herbal medicine appears to have benefits for reducing the rate of COVID-19 aggravation, but it may not have an effect on gastrointestinal symptoms and liver function*NoFull reviewBenefits and harmsShi S, Wang F, Li J, Li Y, Li W, Wu X et al. The effect of Chinese herbal medicine on digestive system and liver functions should not be neglected in COVID-19: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis. IUBMB Life. 2021;73(5):739-760.  
  N/A (Protocol)n/aNo[Protocol - results not yet available] A review evaluating the effects of herbal medicine for treating COVID-19 is currently being conductedYes (row content last checked on 2021-08-30)ProtocolBenefits and harmsAng L, Lee MS, Song E, Lee HW. A living systematic review and cumulative meta-analysis of herbal medicine intervention for COVID-19. PROSPERO. 2020; CRD42020191711.
  N/A (Protocol)n/aNo[Protocol - results not yet available] A review evaluating the effects of kaloba for treating COVID-19 is currently being conductedYes (row content last checked on 2021-08-30)ProtocolBenefits and harmsOrtiz-Munoz L, Pizarro AB, Baladia E, Rada G. Kaloba (Pelargonium beenides) for the treatment of COVID-19: A living systematic review protocol. PROSPERO. 2020; CRD42020191437.
  2020-12-319/11YesA combination of traditional Chinese medicine with conventional western medicine may increase the proportion of cured or remitted COVID-19 patients, and may decrease disease progression, while it probably increases the proportion of improvement of chest CT; it may not increase adverse eventsNoFull reviewBenefits and harmsJiang F, Xu N, Zhou Y, Song J, Liu J, Zhu H, et al. Contribution of traditional Chinese medicine combined with conventional western medicine treatment for the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), current evidence with systematic review and meta-analysis. Phytotherapy Research. 2021.
  2020-11-029/11YesAmong patients hospitalized with COVID-19, oral Chinese medicine combined with western therapy may increase the cure rate and decrease the aggravation rate; its effects on other outcomes are uncertainNoRapid reviewBenefits and harmsLiang SB, Fang M, Liang CH, Lan HD, Shen C, Yan LJ, et al. Therapeutic effects and safety of oral Chinese patent medicine for COVID-19: A rapid systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Complementary Therapies in Medicine. 2021;60. 
 Management of COVID-19 with a syndemic orientation2020-07-018/10NoEvidence shows that people who experienced restricted physical contact during the COVID-19 pandemic may have increased food consumption and modified eating styles [Review of studies mainly of moderate quality]NoFull reviewOtherNeira C, Godinho R, Rincón F, Mardones R, Pedroso J. Consequences of the COVID-19 ysndemic for nutritional health: A systematic review. Nutrients. 2021;13(4):1168.
Treatment of post-COVID-19 conditions        
 Treatment of long COVID-19 symptomsN/A (Protocol)n/aNo[Protocol - results not yet available] A review evaluating the prevalence of long-term effects of COVID-19 and post COVID-19 syndrome among different populations is currently being conductedYes (row content last checked on 2021-08-30)ProtocolOtherO'Mahoney L, Ekezie W, Pareek M, Brightling C, Davies M, Zaccardi F, et al. A living systematic review of the prevalence and long-term health effects of ongoing symptomatic COVID 19 and post COVID 19 syndrome among hospitalised and non-hospitalised patients by age, sex, ethnicity and deprivation. PROSPERO. 2021; CRD42021238247
  N/A (Protocol)n/aYes[Protocol - results not yet available] A review examining pre-existing autoimmune and allergic diseases as risk factors for long-COVID-19 symptoms is currently being conductedNoProtocolOtherHahne TM, Brushinski E, Drewitz KP, Grepmeier EM, Siegels D, Ossenbrink L, et al. Pre-existing autoimmune and allergic diseases as risk factors for Long-COVID symptoms: Protocol for a rapid review. PROSPERO. 2021;CRD42021247612.
  2020-09-156/9NoAlthough no evidence was found evaluating the effects of COVID-19 infection after 12 weeks, an important number of studies report that healthy adults between 18 to 50 years might be affected by long COVID-19 symptoms with multi-organ impact [Review of studies of variable quality]NoFull reviewOtherWilli S, Lüthold R, Hunt A, Hänggi NV, Sejdiu D, Scaff C, et al. COVID-19 sequelae in adults aged less than 50 years: A systematic review. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease. 2021;40:101995. 
  N/A (Protocol)n/aYes[Protocol - results not yet available] A review evaluating the effects of traditional Chinese medicine for post-viral olfactory dysfunction is currently being conductedNoProtocolBenefits and harmsMa F, Zhang H, Li B, Cheng P, Ma Y, Yu M et al. The effect of traditional Chinese medicine treatment for post-viral olfactory dysfunction: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2021;100(16):e25536.  
  2021-02-208/11NoWhile neuropsychiatric symptoms are common after recovery from COVID-19, sleep disorders and fatigue are the most frequent (25% of the patients), followed by cognitive impairment, anxiety, post-traumatic symptoms, and depression  [Review of studies of low to moderate quality with important heterogeneity among their findings]NoFull reviewOtherBadenoch JB, Rengasamy ER, Watson CJ, Jansen K, Chakraborty S, Sundaram RD et al. Persistent neuropsychiatric symptoms after COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis. medRxiv. 2021.
  2021-02-019/10NoA highly variable frequency of long COVID-19 symptoms has been found, whereas the most common persistent symptoms are chest pain, fatigue, dyspnea, cough and sputum productionNoFull reviewOtherCabrera Martimbianco AL, Pacheco RL, Bagattini ÂM, Riera R. Frequency, signs and symptoms, and criteria adopted for long COVID: A systematic review. Int J Clin Pract. 2021:e14357. 
  N/A (Protocol)n/aNo[Protocol - results not yet available] A review exploring long COVID symptoms in children and young people is currently being conductedYes (row content last checked on 2021-08-30)ProtocolOtherWelsh V, Corp N, Burton C, Twohig H, Saunders B, Bucknall M et al. Long term COVID-19 (Long COVID) in children and young people: a living systematic review. PROSPERO. 2020;CRD42020226624.
  2020-12-1610/10YesSteroids with nasal irrigation is the only treatment that has been studied to treat persistent post-COVID-19 olfactory dysfuntion; its effects are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full reviewBenefits and harmsO'Byrne L, Webster KE, MacKeith S, Philpott C, Hopkins C, Burton MJ. Interventions for the treatment of persistent post-COVID-19 olfactory dysfunction. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2021;7:Art. No.: CD013876. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD013876.pub2.
  2020-12-1610/10YesSteroids with nasal irrigation is the only alternative that has been studied to prevent persistent post-COVID-19 olfactory dysfuntion; its effects are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full reviewBenefits and harmsWebster KE, O'Byrne L, MacKeith S, Philpott C, Hopkins C, Burton MJ. Interventions for the prevention of persistent post‐COVID‐19 olfactory dysfunction. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2021;(7):CD013877.
 Treatment of multiorgan effects2020-08-206/11NoCases of COVID-19 multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children have a mean age of onset of 9.3 years, mostly in hispanic and black children, with fever,  gastrointestinal, dermatological or mucocutaneous symptoms being the most common; cardiovascular involvement, including myocardial disfunction was commonly reported [Review of studies of unknown quality with important heterogeneity among their findings]NoFull reviewOtherYasuhara J, Watanabe K, Takagi H, Sumitomo N, Kuno T. COVID-19 and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Pediatric Pulmonology. 2021. 
  2020-09-156/9YesA systematic review of autopsy findings found evidence of abnormalities in multiple organs and systemsNoFull reviewOtherHammoud H, Bendari A, Bendari T, Bougmiza I. Histopathological findings in COVID-19 cases: A systematic review. medRxiv. 2020. 
  N/A (Protocol)n/aYes[Protocol - results not yet available] A systematic review evaluating pediatric massage therapy for restoring pediatric lung function from COVID-19 is currently being conductedNoProtocolBenefits and harmsZhou KL, Dong S, Wang K, Fu GB, Niu Y, Xue XN, et al. Pediatric massage therapy for restoring pediatric lung function from COVID-19: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis. Medicine. 2020;99(33):e21581.
  N/A (Protocol)n/aNo[Protocol - results not yet available] A review characterizing SARS-CoV-2 oral disorders in children and adolescents with multisystemic inflammatory syndrome is currently being conductedYes (row content last checked on 2021-08-30)ProtocolOtherCosta FW, Pereira K, Roger A, Pires F, Manoela T, Feitosa S, et al. Characterization of oral disorders related to SARS-CoV-2 in children and adolescents with multisystemic inflammatory syndrome: A systematic living review. PROSPERO. 2021; CRD42021240550
  N/A (Protocol)n/aNo[Protocol - results not yet available] A review evaluating the prevalence and long-term effects of long COVID-19 symptoms (including multiorgan effects) by age, sex, ethnicity and deprivation is currently being conductedYes (row content last checked on 2021-08-30)ProtocolOtherO'Mahoney L, Ekezie W, Pareek M, Brightling C, Davies M, Zaccardi F, et al. A living systematic review of the prevalence and long-term health effects of ongoing symptomatic COVID 19 and post COVID 19 syndrome among hospitalised and non-hospitalised patients by age, sex, ethnicity and deprivation. PROSPERO. 2021; CRD42021238247
  2020-07-015/9NoIncreasing evidence suggests that COVID-19 related cardiac injury could be triggered by the development of systemic hyperinflammation that is sometimes produced in response to the COVID-19 infection [Review of studies of unclear quality]NoFull reviewOtherSaed Aldien A, Ganesan GS, Wahbeh F, Al-Nassr N, Altarawneh H, Al Theyab L et al. Systemic inflammation may induce cardiac injury in COVID-19 patients including children and adolescents without underlying cardiovascular diseases: A systematic review. Cardiovasc Revasc Med. 2021:S1553-8389(21)00195-0. 
  2020-07-108/11NoWhereas a significant association has been found between COVID-19 infection and Kawasaki disease in children, the current clinical strategies to address COVID-19 might need to be adapted with the increase of multi-inflammatory syndrome in children with COVID-19 [Review of studies of low to moderate quality with important heterogeneity among some of their findings]NoFull reviewOther
Dhar D, Dey T, Samim MM, Padmanabha H, Chatterjee A, Naznin P et al. Systemic inflammatory syndrome in COVID-19-SISCoV study: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Pediatr Res. 2021:1–16. 

 Treatment of the effects of COVID-19 treatment or hospitalizationN/A (Protocol)n/aNo[Protocol - results not yet available] A review evaluating the prevalence and long-term effects of long COVID-19 symptoms among hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients is currently being conductedYes (row content last checked on 2021-08-30)ProtocolOtherO'Mahoney L, Ekezie W, Pareek M, Brightling C, Davies M, Zaccardi F, et al. A living systematic review of the prevalence and long-term health effects of ongoing symptomatic COVID 19 and post COVID 19 syndrome among hospitalised and non-hospitalised patients by age, sex, ethnicity and deprivation. PROSPERO. 2021; CRD42021238247
  2020-10-227/11NoFatigue, dyspnoea, chest pain and cough were the most common symptoms found among survivors of hospital admission after COVID-19 infection [Review of studies of low to moderate quality with important heterogeneity among their findings]NoFull reviewOtherCares-Marambio K, Montenegro-Jiménez Y, Torres-Castro R, Vera-Uribe R, Torralba Y, Alsina-Restoy X, et al. Prevalence of potential respiratory symptoms in survivors of hospital admission after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): A systematic review and meta-analysis. Chronic Respiratory Disease. 2021. 
  2020-08-045/9NoPatients in prone position to treat COVID-19 could be at risk of developing pressure injuries when connected to a mechanical ventilator for long periods [Review of observational studies]NoFull reviewOtherYu J-N, Wu B-B, Feng L-P, Chen H-L. COVID-19 related pressure injuries in patients and personnel: A systematic review. Journal of Tissue Viability. 2021.
  2021-03-028/11NoAmong COVID-19 patients admitted to ICU, almost half of them develop ventilator-associated pneumonia [Review of observational studies mainly of moderate quality with substantial heterogeneity among their findings]NoFull reviewOtherIppolito M, Misseri G, Catalisano G, Marino C, Ingoglia G, Alessi M, et al. Ventilator-associated pneumonia in patients with COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Antibiotics. 2021;10(5):545.
 Treatment of COVID-19 sequelae2021-04-307/11NoAn increasing number of rehabilitation research is being conducted to address post COVID-19 symptoms and sequelae, in response to an increased report of common post-COVID impairments [Review of studies of unknown quality]Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Rapid reviewOtherNegrini F, de Sire A, Andrenelli E, Lazzarini SG, Patrini M, Ceravolo MG; International Multiprofessional Steering Committee of Cochrane Rehabilitation REH-COVER action. Rehabilitation and COVID-19: Update of the rapid living systematic review by Cochrane Rehabilitation Field as of April 30th, 2021. European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine. 2021.
  2020-05-114/9NoEvidence suggests that male fertility may be affected by SARS-CoV-2 infection especially in young children undergoing puberty [Review of observational studies of unknown quality conducted during COVID-19 and SARS outbreaks]NoFull reviewOtherVishvkarma R & Rajender S. Could SARS-CoV-2 affect male fertility?. Andrologia. 2020;52(9):e13712. 
  N/A (Protocol)n/aYes[Protocol - results not yet available] A review evaluating short- and long-term healthcare use among COVID-19 patients discharged from hospital with physical functional impairment is currently being conductedYes (row content last checked on 2021-08-30)ProtocolOtherGordon A, Sharpe J, Allen K, Ballengee L, Burke C, Zullig L, et al. COVID-19 functional status sequelae. PROSPERO. 2020; CRD42020215229. 
  N/A (Protocol)n/aNo[Protocol - results not yet available] A review evaluating the efficacy of using nintedanib for SARS-CoV-2 induced pulmonary fibrosis is currently being conductedYes (row content last checked on 2021-08-30)ProtocolBenefits and harmsNafea A, Mahmoud A, Elanany I, Altaweel A. Efficacy of nintedanib in SARS-Cov-2 induced pulmonary fibrosis management: A living systematic review and meta-analysis. PROSPERO. 2021; CRD42021234436
  2020-11-015/9NoAlthough there are reported cases evaluating rare neurological manifestations of coronavirus infections in children, there is still very scarce evidence to better understand these sequelae [Review of studies of unknown quality including studies conducting during the COVID-19, MERS and SARS outbreaks]NoFull reviewOtherSinger TG, Evankovich KD, Fisher K, Demmler-Harrison GJ, Risen SR. Coronavirus infections in the nervous system of children: A scoping review making the case for long-term neurodevelopmental surveillance. Pediatric Neurology. 2021;117:47-63. 
  2020-11-018/11NoA positive association was found between pulmonary rehabilitation and lung function, exercise capacity and quality of life in interstitial lung disease patients (including COVID-19 patients)[Review of studies of variable quality conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic and other coronaviruses]NoFull reviewBenefits and harmsReina-Gutiérrez S, Torres-Costoso A, Martínez-Vizcaíno V, de Arenas-Arroyo SN, Fernández-Rodríguez R, Pozuelo-Carrascosa DP. Effectiveness of respiratory rehabilitation for the treatment of the sequelae produced by interstitial lung diseases similar to Covid-19. A systematic review. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2021:S0003-9993(21)00326-9.  
  N/A (Protocol)n/aNo[Protocol - results not yet available] A review evaluating the effects of dance-based mind-motor activities on the quality of life in patients recovering from COVID-19 is currently being conductedNoProtocolBenefits and harmsDing Y, Guo C, Yu S, Zhang P, Feng Z, Sun J et al. The effect of dance-based mind-motor activities on the quality of life in the patients recovering from COVID-19: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2021;100(11):e25102. 
  2021-02-208/11NoWhile neuropsychiatric symptoms are common after recovery from COVID-19, sleep disorders and fatigue are the most frequent (25% of the patients), followed by cognitive impairment, anxiety, post-traumatic symptoms, and depression  [Review of studies of low to moderate quality with important heterogeneity among their findings]NoFull reviewOtherBadenoch JB, Rengasamy ER, Watson CJ, Jansen K, Chakraborty S, Sundaram RD et al. Persistent neuropsychiatric symptoms after COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis. medRxiv. 2021.
  2021-01-017/11NoThe occurrence of hearing loss, tinnitus, and dizziness have been associated with COVID-19 infection [Review of studies on low to moderate quality with important heterogeneity among their findings]NoFull reviewOtherJafari Z, Kolb BE, Mohajerani MH. Hearing loss, tinnitus, and dizziness in COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. 2021:1-33.
  N/A (Protocol)n/aNo[Protocol - results not yet available] A review evaluating the role of respiratory muscle training for patients with COVID-19 is currently being conductedYes (row content last checked on 2021-08-30)ProtocolOtherArce S, Lai S. Respiratory muscle training for patients with COVID-19: A living systematic review protocol. PROSPERO. 2020;CRD42020185394.
  N/A (Protocol)n/aNo[Protocol - results not yet available] A review exploring the effects of physical activity on COVID-19 rehabilitation is currently being conductedYes (row content last checked on 2021-09-07)ProtocolBenefits and harmsCaputo E, Dumith S, Opelt L, Vieiro V. Exercise and physical activity effects on Covid-19 rehabilitation: A living systematic review and meta-analysis. PROSPERO. 2021;CRD42021266047.
  2020-12-019/11NoA review found multiple reports of audio-vestibular symptoms associated with COVID-19  [Review of studies of mainly case studies of low quality]NoRapid reviewOtherAlmufarrij I & Munro KJ. One year on: An updated systematic review of SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19 and audio-vestibular symptoms. International Journal of Audiology. 2021:1-11.
Clinical management of pandemic-related impacts on health more generally         
 Interrupted management of other types of urgent care 2020-09-06
6/10 No During the COVID-19 pandemic, out-of-hospital cardiac arrests had delayed  arrival times to emergency medical services, and less time to provide adequate acute care [Review of observational studies of high risk of bias] No Full review Other Scquizzato T, Landoni G, Paoli A, Lembo R, Fominskiy E, Kuzovlev A, et al. Effects of COVID-19 pandemic on out-of-hospital cardiac arrests: A systematic review. Resuscitation. 2020. 
  2020-08-12
7/10 No A substantial decrease in the number of hospital admissions for acute cardiovascular disease has been reported during the COVID-19 pandemic, with shorter lengths of stay and fewer procedures performed [Review of studies of variable quality] No Full review Other Kiss P, Carcel C, Hockham C, Peters SAE. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the care and management of patients with acute cardiovascular disease: A systematic review. European Heart Journal: Quality of Care & Clinical Outcomes. 2020;qcaa084. 
  2020-10-045/9NoEvidence that post-COVID-19 symptoms persist after infection has implications for postoperative care, suggesting surgeries may be delayed for at least 4 weeks after a positive COVID-19 test [Review of mainly low quality studies]NoRapid reviewOtherKovoor JG, Scott NA, Tivey DR, Babidge WJ, Scott DA, Beavis VS, Kok J, MacCormick AD, Padbury RTA, Hugh TJ, Hewett PJ, Collinson TG, Maddern GJ, Frydenberg M. Proposed delay for safe surgery after COVID-19. ANZ Journal of Surgery. 2021.
  2021-06-019/11NoAbout one in 20 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 suffered an in-hospital cardiac arrest with an important fatality rate, although this mortality is comparable to pre-pandemic rates for cardiac arrests patients [Review of studies of mainly moderate quality]NoFull reviewOtherLim ZJ, Reddy MP, Curtis JR, Afroz A, Billah B, Sheth V, et al. A systematic review of the incidence and outcomes of in-hospital cardiac arrests in patients with coronavirus disease 2019. Critical Care Medicine. 2021. 
 Interrupted management or poor self management of chronic conditions  2020-05-15 4/9 No A review of nine studies focused on 12 COVID-19 patients with chronic dermatologic conditions suggested that ceasing any dermatological treatments using immunomodulators and then re-starting them after the acute stage of COVID-19 infection may be considered to reduce the risk of severe recurrance of the dermatological condition as well as a distrubing cytokine storm No Full review Other Najar Nobar N, Goodarzi A. Patients with specific skin disorders who are affected by COVID-19: what do experiences say about management strategies? : A systematic review [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jun 18]. Dermatol Ther. 2020;e13867. doi:10.1111/dth.13867 
  2020-05-23
7/11 No There has been no reported association between any particular oncologic therapy or treatment modality and COVID-19 mortality  No Full review Other Venkatesulu BP, Chandrasekar VT, Girdhar P, Advani P, Sharma A, Elumalai T, et al. A systematic review and meta-analysis of cancer patients affected by a novel coronavirus. medRxiv. 2020. 
  2020-08-064/11No Adherence to therapies for inflammatory bowel disease decreased internationally during the COVID-19 pandemic, with some regional variation [Review of observational studies] NoFull review OtherJena A, Singh AK, Kumar-M P, Sharma V, Sebastian S. Systematic review on failure to adhere to IBD therapies during the COVID-19 pandemic: Correct information is crucial. Digestive and Liver Disease. 2020.
  2020-08-10
7/10 NoA substantial decrease in healthcare utilization during the pandemic has been found, mainly driven by people with less severe illness who are accessing less care [Review of observational studies]No Full review Other Moynihan R, Sanders S, Michaleff ZA, Scott A, Clark J, To EM, et al. Pandemic impacts on healthcare utilisation: A systematic review. BMJ Open. 2020;11;e045343.
  2020-12-1410/11NoPoorer survival of colorectal cancer patients has been found when delaying elective surgeries (in response to pandemic lockdowns or other contexts), particularly after 3 months [Review of observational studies of low to moderate quality with moderate heterogeneity among their findings]NoFull reviewBenefits and harmsWhittaker TM, Abdelrazek MEG, Fitzpatrick AJ, Froud JLJ, Kelly JR, Williamson JS, et al. Delay to elective colorectal cancer surgery and implications for survival: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Colorectal Disease. 2021. 
  2020-10-306/9NoImmunosuppression among kidney transplant recipients with COVID-19 is managed as a tailored approach balancing the risk of COVID-19 complications and the risk of rejection or graft loss [Review of mainly case series and reports]NoFull reviewOtherAngelico R, Blasi F, Manzia TM, Toti L, Tisone G, Cacciola R. The management of immunosuppression in kidney transplant recipients with COVID-19 disease: An update and systematic review of the literature. Medicina (Kaunas). 2021;57(5):435. 
 Management of COVID-19 alongside other infectious diseasesN/A (Protocol)
n/aNo [Protocol - results not yet available] A review evaluating bacterial co-infections in patients with COVID-19 is currently being conducted Yes (row content last checked on 2021-08-30)Protocol Other Langford B, So M, Leung V, Raybardhan S, Westwood D, Lo J, et al. Bacterial co-infection and secondary infection in patients with COVID-19: A rapid living review: 2021 update with meta-regression. PROSPERO. 2021; CRD42021241098  
  2021-03-097/11NoThe prevalence of COVID-19 among people living with HIV/AIDS could range from 0.8 to 9.7%, while chronic kidney disease, diabetes, hypertension and chronic cardiac disease have been identified as factors explaining worse prognosis among these patients [Review of studies of low to moderate quality with important heterogeneity among their findings]NoFull reviewOtherLiang M, Luo N, Chen M, Chen C, Singh S, Singh S et al. Prevalence and mortality due to COVID-19 in HIV co-infected population: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Infect Dis Ther. 2021:1–19. 
  2021-02-088/11NoCo-infection with other pathogens has been estimated in 19% of the patients with COVID-19 infection, while 24% of them had superinfection  [Review of studies of moderate quality with important heterogeneity among their findings]NoFull reviewOtherMusuuza JS, Watson L, Parmasad V, Putman-Buehler N, Christensen L, Safdar N. Prevalence and outcomes of co-infection and superinfection with SARS-CoV-2 and other pathogens: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2021;16(5):e0251170. 
  2020-09-239/11NoLimited evidence shows a lack of association between hepatitis B coinfection with COVID-19 and serious adverse eventsNoFull reviewOtherZhu JH & Peltekian KM. HBV coinfection and in-hospital outcomes for COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Canadian Liver Journal. 2021;4(1):16-22.
  N/A (Protocol)n/aNo[Protocol - results not yet available] A review exploring COVID-19 and HIV co-infections is currently being conductedYes (row content last checked on 2021-08-30)ProtocolOtherMapanga W, Masukume G, van Zyl DS. COVID-19 and HIV co-infection: A living systematic evidence map of current research. PROSPERO. 2020; CRD42020191115 
  N/A (Protocol)n/aNo[Protocol - results not yet available] A review exploring COVID-19 and arbovirus co-infections is currently being conductedYes (row content last checked on 2021-08-30)ProtocolOtherTrevisani G, Milby KM, Atallah AN, Rocha-Filho CR, Nunes Pinto ACP, da Rocha AP et al. SARS - COV- 2 and arbovirus infections: a rapid living systematic review. PROSPERO. 2020;CRD42020183460.
  2021-02-278/11NoCOVID-19 associated pulmonary aspergillosis has been reported in 14% of COVID-19 cases admitted to ICU, and may be associated with higher mortality rates [Review of studies of mainly moderate quality]NoFull reviewOtherChen W, Yin C, Zhong M, Hu B, Gao X, Zhang K, et al. Incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of patients with COVID‑19‑associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) in intensive care units: A systematic review and meta-analysis of 29 cohort studies. Research Square. 2021.
  2021-05-145/10NoPatients with COVID-19-associated mucormycosis have been found to have an underlying history of diabetes and received corticosteroids as part of their COVID-19 management, and a higher mortality was reported among them [Review of mainly case reports]NoFull reviewOtherPal R, Singh B, Bhadada SK, Banerjee M, Bhogal RS, Hage N, et al. COVID-19-associated mucormycosis: An updated systematic review of literature. Mycoses. 2021.
  2020-12-308/11NoA high prevalence of bacterial co-infection among patients with COVID-19 has been found, with higher rates in critical patients [Review of studies of unknown quality and important heterogeneity among their findings]NoFull reviewOtherSoltani S, Faramarzi S, Zandi M, Shahbahrami R, Jafarpour A, Rezayat SA, et al. Bacterial co-infection among COVID-19 patient groups: An update systematic review and meta-analysis. New Microbes and New Infections. 2021;100910. 
 Management considerations for chronic and other existing health conditions
        
  Chronic conditions2020-07-05
7/9Yes [Protocol - results not yet available] A review on clinical management of COVID-19 patients with an undergoing treatment for immune-mediated inflammatory disease is currently being conductedYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Rapid review Other Rocha APD, Atallah AN, Pinto A, Rocha-Filho CR, Milby KM, Civile VT, et al. COVID-19 and patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases undergoing pharmacological treatments: A rapid living systematic review. Sao Paulo Medical Journal. 2020;138(6):515-520. 
   2020-12-188/10NoAlthough insufficient evidence has been found on multiple sclerosis patients with COVID-19, the current evidence shows that the severity and mortality rates might not be substantially different from the rates observed in the general population [Review of studies of unclear quality]NoFull reviewOtherBarzegar M, Mirmosayyeb O, Gajarzadeh M, Afshari-Safavi A, Nehzat N, Vaheb S, et al. COVID-19 among patients with multiple sclerosis: A aystematic review. Neurology, Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation. 2021;8(4):e1001. 
   2021-04-016/11NoEvidence suggests that 4% of patients with multiple sclerosis have had COVID-19 infection, and 10% of those infected have been hospitalized [Review of studies of mainly moderate quality with important heterogeneity among their findings]NoFull reviewOtherMoghadasi AN, Mirmosayyeb O, Barzegar M, Sahraian MA, Ghajarzadeh M. The prevalence of COVID-19 infection in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS): A systematic review and meta-analysis. Neurological Sciences. 2021.
   2020-12-105/9NoEvidence shows that few cases of COVID-19 have been identified among cycstic fibrosis patients, and that they might not get acute exacerbations of chronic lung disease after contracting COVID-19  [Review of studies of mainly moderate quality]NoFull reviewOtherMathew HR, Choi MY, Parkins MD, Fritzler MJ. Systematic review: cystic fibrosis in the SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 pandemic. BMC Pulmonary Medicine. 2021;21:173. 
   2021-04-097/11NoEvidence shows that having pre-existing asthma does not increase the risk of COVID-19 mortality, hospitalization or ICU admission [Review of studies of mainly moderate quality with important heterogeneity among some of their findings]NoFull reviewOtherWu X, Xu Y, Jin L, Wang X, Zhu H, Xie Y. Association of preexisting asthma and other allergic diseases with mortality in COVID-19 patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Frontiers in Medicine. 2021;8:670744.
  Cancer 2020-05-23
7/11NoA systematic review of observational studies showed no association between receiving a particular cancer therapy and mortality in patients with COVID-19NoFull reviewOtherVenkatesulu BP, Chandrasekar VT, Girdhar P, Advani P, Sharma A, Elumalai T, et al. A systematic review and meta-analysis of cancer patients affected by a novel coronavirus. medRxiv. 2020. 
   2020-04-15
4/9 No No studies were found about the effects of adjusting dexamethasone-based antiemetic regimens for cancer patients with COVID-19 No Full review Other Grant RC, Rotstein C, Liu G, et al. Reducing dexamethasone antiemetic prophylaxis during the COVID-19 pandemic: recommendations from Ontario, Canada [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jun 30]. Support Care Cancer. 2020;1-6. doi:10.1007/s00520-020-05588-6 
   2020-10-10
8/11No Limited and highly heterogenous evidence shows that among cancer patients with COVID-19, chemotherapy might be associated with increased mortality [Review of observational studies]No Full review Other Park R, Lee SA, Kim SY, de Melo AC, Kasi A. Association of active oncologic treatment and risk of death in cancer patients with COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis of patient data. Acta Oncologica. 2020. 
   2020-07-158/11NoThe prevalence of cancer among COVID-19 patients was estimated at a very heterogenous 7%, with important variation across different geographical regions [Review of studies of variable quality and substantial heterogeneity]NoFull reviewOtherXiangyi K, Yihang Q, Junjie H, Zhao H, Zhan Z, Qin Z, et al. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of cancer patients with COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis of global data. Cancer Letters. 2021;508:30-46.
   2020-10-056/11NoThe rates of depression and anxiety among patients receiving cancer care during the COVID-19 pandemic is considerable [Review of studies of unclear quality with important heterogeneity among their findings]NoFull reviewOtherAyubi E, Bashirian S, Khazaei S. Depression and anxiety among patients with cancer during COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Gastrointest Cancer. 2021:1–9. 
  Other conditions2020-10-09 6/11No Evidence shows that for the majority of patients who were the recipient of a solid organ transplant during the COVID-19 pandemic, antimetabolites were either reduced or stopped [Review of observational studies of unknown quality] No Full review Other Raja MA, Mendoza MA, Villavicencio A, Anjan S, Reynolds JM, Kittipibul V, et al. COVID-19 in solid organ transplant recipients: A systematic review and meta-analysis of current literature. Transplantation Reviews. 2020;35(1).  
   2020-07-125/9NoEvidence suggests that immunosuppressive therapy may not increase the risk of hospital mortality among solid organ transplant recipients with moderate and severe COVID-19 [Review of observational studies of unknown quality]NoFull reviewOtherKarruli A, Spiezia S, Boccia F, Gagliardi M, Patauner F, Salemme A, et al. Effect of immunosuppression maintenance in solid organ transplant recipients with coronavirus disease 2019: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Transplant Infectious Disease. 2021;e13595. 
   2021-03-318/11NoIt is uncertain whether there is an association between COVID-19 and tinnitus [Review of studies of variable quality of unknown heterogeneity]NoFull reviewOtherBeukes E, Ulep AJ, Eubank T, Manchaiah V. The impact of COVID-19 and the pandemic on tinnitus: A systematic review. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2021;10(13):2763.
   2021-04-017/11NoWhereas the prevalence of COVID-19 among Parkinson's disease patients has been estimated to be 2%, vitamin D supplementation was associated with a lower COVID-19 incidence among these patients [Review of studies of mainly moderate quality]NoFull reviewOtherChambergo-Michilot D, Barros-Sevillano S, Rivera-Torrejón O, De la Cruz-Ku GA, Custudio N. Factors associated with COVID-19 in people with Parkinson's disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis. European Journal of Neurology. 2021.
 See assessing most important prognostic factors for prognostic reviews addressing drug treatment interruptions

  
        
 Burn-out and trauma in essential workers         
  Psychosocial support2021-10-04
5/11 No Clinical staff working in high-exposure roles may report higher rates of anxiety and depression compared to low-exposure roles, and in both groups baseline rates of poor mental health are high [Review of studies of unknown quality conducted during COVID-19, Ebola, H1N1, MERS, and SARS outbreaks with important heterogeneity among their findings]Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Rapid review Other Bell V & Wade D. Mental health of clinical staff working in high-risk epidemic and pandemic health emergencies a rapid review of the evidence and living meta-analysis. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. 2020.  
   2020-06-01
9/11 No Among front-line healthcare workers caring for COVID-19 patients, the prevalence of stress, anxiety and depression were 45%, 26% and 24%, respectively No Full review Other Salari N, Khazaie H, Hosseinian-Far A, Khaledi-Paveh B, Kazeminia M, Mohammadi M, et al. The prevalence of stress, anxiety and depression within front-line healthcare workers caring for COVID-19 patients: A systematic review and meta-regression. Human Resources for Health. 2020;18(1):100.  
   N/A (Protocol)
n/aYes [Protocol - results not yet available] A review evaluating the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health and work ability of healthcare workers is currently being conducted Yes (row content last checked on 2021-08-30)Protocol Other Kunzler AM, Röthke N, Lindner S, Stoffers-Winterling J, Inti-Metzendorf M, Sachkova A et al. Consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health and work ability of healthcare workers as well as risk and protective factors for mental health – protocol for a living systematic review. PROSPERO. 2021; 
   2020-10-027/10NoEvidence shows that multi-factorial interventions (including informational support, instrumental support, organizational support, and emotional and psychological interventions) are best suited to address mental-health issues experienced by healthcare workers during infectious-disease outbreaks [Review of studies of variable quality conducted during the COVID-19, Ebola, AH1N1, and SARS outbreaks]NoFull reviewOtherZaçe D, Hoxhaj I, Orfino A, Viteritti AM, Janiri L, Di Pietro ML. Interventions to address mental health issues in healthcare workers during infectious disease outbreaks: A systematic review. Journal of Psychiatric Research. 2021 Feb 13;136:319-333.
   2020-10-058/11NoHigher rates of poor mental-health outcomes (including anxiety, stress, depression, PTSD and insomnia) have been reported among nurses during the COVID-19 pandemic [Review of studies with moderate quality and important heterogeneity among their findings]NoFull reviewOtherVarghese A, George G, Kondaguli SV, Naser AY, Khakha DC, Chatterji R. Decline in the mental health of nurses across the globe during COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Global Health. 2021;11:05009.
   2020-08-038/11NoHealthcare workers treating COVID-19 patients are at higher risk of developing insomnia and sleep-quality problems, while being female, working in a high-risk environment, and having a low educational level are probably important risk factors [Review of studies of mainly moderate quality]NoRapid reviewOtherSerrano-Ripoll MJ, Zamanillo-Campos R, Castro A, Fiol-de Roque MA, Ricci-Cabello I. Insomnia and sleep quality in healthcare workers fighting against COVID-19: A systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis. Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría. 2021;49(4):155-179.
  Burn-out care2020-04-15
8/10 No Substantial impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of health care workers was found, mainly driven by general health concerns and fear [Review of studies conducted during COVID-19, MERS and SARS outbreaks]No Full review OtherSalazar de Pablo G, Vaquerizo-Serrano J, Catalan A, et al. Impact of coronavirus syndromes on physical and mental health of health care workers: Systematic review and meta-analysis [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jun 25]. J Affect Disord. 2020;275:48-57. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2020.06.022 
   2020-11-15
8/11 No A high level of burnout has been reported by nurses during the COVID-19 pandemic, with levels even higher than those observed in traditionally stressful environments [Review of studies of moderate and good quality] No Full review Other Galanis PA, Vraka I, Fragkou D, Bilali A, Kaitelidou D. Nurses' burnout and associated risk factors during the COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 2020; 77(8): 3286-3302.
   2020-09-306/10NoLimited evidence was found on interventions to reduce or prevent burnout and occupational stress and the effects these have on female healthcare professionals during the COVID-19 pandemic [Review of studies of unknown quality]NoRapid reviewOtherSriharan A, Ratnapalan S, Tricco AC, Lupea D. Women in health care experiencing occupational stress and burnout during COVID-19: A review. BMJ Open. 2021;11:e048861.
   2020-09-155/9NoSubstantial challenges from COVID-19 are experienced for people living with dementia and their families, such as partner fatigue and burnout, and confinement challenges [Review of studies of unknown quality]NoFull reviewOtherBacsu JR, O'Connell ME, Webster C, Poole L, Wighton MB, Sivananthan S. A scoping review of COVID-19 experiences of people living with dementia. Canadian Journal of Public Health. 2021;112(3):400-411.
  Trauma-informed care 2020-04-01
7/11 No During the COVID-19 pandemic, health professionals experience a higher level of mental trauma with psychiatric repercussions, compared to the general population No Full review Other da Silva FCT, Neto MLR. Psychiatric symptomatology associated with depression, anxiety, distress, and insomnia in health professionals working in patients affected by COVID-19: A systematic review with meta-analysis. Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology biological psychiatry. 2020;104:110057. 
   2020-05-18
10/11 No Evidence shows that about 20% of healthcare workers have reported a diagnosis or symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder during coronaviruses outbreaks [Review of studies of variable quality conducted during COVID-19, MERS and SARS outbreaks] No Full review Other Salehi M, Amanat M, Mohammadi M, Salmanian M, Rezaei N, Saghazadeh A, et al. The prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder related symptoms in Coronavirus outbreaks: A systematic-review and meta-analysis. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2021;282:527-538.  
   2020-08-239/11NoThe prevalence of postraumatic stress disorders was found to increase after infectious disease pandemics, especially among frontline healthcare workers and infected people [Review of studies conducted during COVID-19 and other outbreaks with high heterogeneity]NoFull reviewOtherYuan K, Gong YM, Liu L, Sun YK, Tian SS, Wang YJ, et al. Prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder after infectious disease pandemics in the twenty-first century, including COVID-19: A meta-analysis and systematic review. Molecular Psychiatry. 2021;1-17. 
   2020-11-156/11NoEvidence shows that the prevalence of immediate PTSD increased during the acute phase of the COVID-19 and SARS pandemics among healthcare professionals, and a number of factors have been identified as potential determinants [Review of studies conducted during the COVID-19 and SARS outbreaks]NoFull reviewOtherFalasi BA, Mazrouei MA, Ali MA, Dhamani MA, Ali AA, Kindi MA, et al. Prevalence and determinants of immediate and long-term PTSD consequences of coronavirus-related (CoV-1 and CoV-2) pandemics among healthcare professionals: A systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021;18(4):2182.
 Mental health and additions issues related to the pandemic response         
  Remote management of existing conditions2020-06-17 4/9No A scoping review found a number of comercially available digital tools to address psychological symptoms associated with COVID-19, including those that are web-based, mobile and conversational agents, but did not report findings from evaluations of such toolsNoFull review Other Zhang M, Smith HE. Digital tools to ameliorate psychological symptoms associated with COVID-19: Scoping review. Journal of Medical Internet Research. 2020;22(8):e19706. 
   2020-08-056/9NoWeak evidence suggested some efficacy or effectiveness of digital-health solutions to support women with addictions during the COVID-19 pandemic [Review of studies of unknown quality conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic and before]NoFull reviewOtherQuilty L, Buckley L, Coombs M, Kristy B-L, Agic B, Shakespeare J, et al. Digital health solutions to support women with addiction during COVID-19: Applying a gender- and trauma-informed lens. CIHR. 2020;
   2020-06-015/9NoLimited evidence shows that virtual-care interventions might have the potential to provide trauma-focused treatment to populations affected by domestic violence and sexual assault, particularly the provision of online psychological therapies [Review of studies conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic and before]NoFull reviewOtherMontesanti S, Ghidei W, Silverstone P, Wells L. Examining the use of virtual care interventions to provide trauma-focused treatment to domestic violence and sexual assault populations. Edmonton, Alberta: CIHR. 2020;
   2021-03-228/10NoEvidence suggests that mental-health support using self-guided online interventions may effectively address mental-health needs during the COVID-19 pandemic [Review of studies of low to moderate quality]Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full reviewBenefits and harmsBonardi O, Wang Y, Li K, Jiang X, Krishnan A, He C, et al. Effects of COVID-19 mental health interventions among community-based children, adolescents, and adults: A living systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Medrxiv. 2021. 
  Management of pandemic-related mental health conditionsN/A (Protocol)
n/aNo [Protocol - results not yet available] A systematic review on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health symptoms and addictions is currently being conductedYes (row content last checked on 2021-08-30)Protocol Other Salanti G, Papakonstantinou T, Cipriani A, Furukawa T, Leucht S. Living Systematic Review on the Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the General Populations' Mental Health, Alcohol/Substance Abuse and Violence. PROSPERO 2020; CRD42020180049. 
    2020-09-10 8/10 NoThe effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and similar events on substance use, safety, overdoses and substance-related deaths are uncertain but experience from previous pandemics and similar events suggest that substance users may have reduced access to harm reduction and treatment services, and that the supply of illicit substances may be disruptedNoRapid review Other National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools. Rapid Review Update 1: What is the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on opioid and substance use and related harms? Hamilton, ON: National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools; 2020.
   2020-06-16 8/10 NoA rapid review found only cross-sectional studies showing unclear results regarding the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on alcohol use and alcohol-related harmsNoRapid review Other National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools. Rapid review: What is the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on alcohol use and alcohol-related harms? Hamilton, ON: National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools; 2020.
   2020-08-067/10NoA rapid review only identified in-progress studies evaluating the impact of COVID-19 on the mental health and wellbeing of caregivers and families of autistic people with results from these studies pending
NoRapid review OtherWeiss J, Lee V, Albaum C, Modica PT, Khanlou N, Ahmad F, et al. Impact of COVID-19 on the mental health and wellbeing of caregivers and families of autistic people: A rapid synthesis review. Canadian Institutes of Health Research. 2020. 
   2020-10-198/10YesInconsistent estimates of the impact of COVID-19 on suicide rates have been reported across studies and countries, but some evidence shows a rise in community distress and frequency of suicidal thoughts in individuals infected with COVID-19 [Review of observational studies, mainly case series]Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full reviewOther John A, Eyles E, Webb RT, Okolie C, Schmidt L, Arensman E, et al. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on self-harm and suicidal behaviour: Update of living systematic review. F1000Research. 2021;9:1097. 
   2020-07-01
5/9 No Depression and anxiety have been the most frequent mental health conditions that pregnant and puerperal women have reported as a result of COVID-19 No Full review Other Vieira LG, Camargo ELS, Schneider G, et al. Repercussions of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Mental Health of Pregnant and Puerperal Women: A Systematic Review. medRxiv 2020. 
  
N/A (protocol)n/a No [Protocol - results not yet available] A systematic review to evaluate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture and relevant interventions as adjunctive therapy for anxiety in COVID-19 is currently being conducted
NoProtocol Benefits and harms  Jia H, Han Z, Zhang K, Tang Q, Sun K, Huang H, et al. Acupuncture and related interventions for anxiety in coronavirus disease 2019: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2020;99(30):e21317.
   2020-08-12
5/9 No COVID-19 pandemic might be associated with an increase in sleep disorders, particularly in women, young people, and healthcare workers [Review of observational studies of unknown quality]No Full review Other Tasnim S, Rahman M, Pawar P, Chi X, Yu Q, Zou L, et al. Epidemiology of sleep disorders during COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic scoping review. medRxiv. 2020.  
   2020-05-18
10/11 No Evidence shows that about 30% of people that have had a coronavirus infection report a diagnosis or symptoms consistent with post-traumatic stress disorder  during coronaviruses outbreaks [Review of studies of variable quality conducted during COVID-19, MERS and SARS outbreaks]No Full review Other Salehi M, Amanat M, Mohammadi M, Salmanian M, Rezaei N, Saghazadeh A, et al. The prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder related symptoms in Coronavirus outbreaks: A systematic-review and meta-analysis. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2021;282:527-538.  
   2021-01-018/11NoThe prevalence of depressive symptoms, anxiety and sleep disturbances has been estimated to be more than 30% among students in higher education during the COVID-19 pandemic [Review of studies of variable quality and high heterogeneity]NoFull reviewOtherDeng J, Zhou F, Hou W, Silver Z, Wong CY, Chang O, Drakos A, Zuo QK, Huang E. The prevalence of depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms and sleep disturbance in higher education students duringthe COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychiatry  Research. 2021.
   N/A (Protocol)n/aNo[Protocol - results not yet available] A review exploring the psychological effects of bereavement due to the COVID-19 pandemic is currently being conductedYes (row content last checked on 2021-08-30)ProtocolOtherReitsma L, Lenferink L, Boelen P. Psychological effects of bereavement due to COVID-19: a living systematic review. PROSPERO. 2021;CRD42021225347.
   2020-09-018/10NoSchool closures have been associated with a considerable harm to the health and well-being of children and young people [Review of studies of variable quality conducted during and pre COVID-19 era]NoFull reviewOtherViner R, Russell R, Saulle R, Croker H, Stansfeld C, Packer J, et al. Impacts of school closures on physical and mental health of children and young people: A systematic review. medRxiv. 2021.
   2020-05-286/10NoEvidence suggests a beneficial effects of physical activity such as exercise and yoga at home to promote mental wellness during the COVID-19 pandemic [Review of low quality studies mainly conducted in prison settings with unclear heterogeneity]NoFull reviewBenefits and harmsPuyat JH, Ahmad H, Avina-Galindo AM, Kazanjian A, Gupta A, Ellis U, et al. A rapid review of home-based activities that can promote mental wellness during the COVID-19 pandemic. PLoS One. 2020;15(12):e0243125. 
   2020-05-168/10NoAlthough some studies report an association between previous infectious-disease related public-health emergencies and an increased risk of suicidal behavior and thoughts, the evidence is too uncertain to draw firm conclusions [Review of low-quality studies conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic and before]NoFull reviewOtherZortea TC, Brenna CTA, Joyce M, McClelland H, Tippett M, Tran MM, et al. The impact of infectious disease-related public health emergencies on suicide, suicidal behavior, and suicidal thoughts. Crisis. 2020:1-14. 
   2021-03-228/10NoEvidence suggests that mental-health support using lay- or peer-delivered interventions may be an effective strategy to address mental-health issues in vulnerable populations during the COVID-19 pandemic [Review of studies of low to moderate quality]Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full reviewBenefits and harmsBonardi O, Wang Y, Li K, Jiang X, Krishnan A, He C, et al. Effects of COVID-19 mental health interventions among community-based children, adolescents, and adults: A living systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Medrxiv. 2021. 
   2021-03-226/11NoNo consistent evidence was found suggesting mental health symptoms have worsened as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic when comparing mental health prior to and during the pandemic [Review of studies with substantial heterogeneity among their findings]Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full reviewOtherSun Y, Wu Y, Bonardi O, Krishnan A, He C, Boruff JT, et al. Comparison of mental health symptoms prior to and during COVID-19: Evidence from a living systematic review and meta-analysis. Medrxiv. 2021.
   2020-10-056/11NoThe rates of depression and anxiety among patients receiving cancer care during the COVID-19 pandemic is considerable [Review of studies of unclear quality with important heterogeneity among their findings]NoFull reviewOtherAyubi E, Bashirian S, Khazaei S. Depression and anxiety among patients with cancer during COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Gastrointest Cancer. 2021:1–9. 
   2020-09-155/9NoSubstantial challenges from COVID-19 are experienced for people living with dementia and their families, such as partner fatigue and burnout, and confinement challenges [Review of studies of unknown quality]NoFull reviewOtherBacsu JR, O'Connell ME, Webster C, Poole L, Wighton MB, Sivananthan S. A scoping review of COVID-19 experiences of people living with dementia. Canadian Journal of Public Health. 2021;112(3):400-411.
   2020-10-079/11NoCOVID-19 patients have been found to experience different degrees of depression, anxiety, PTSD, insomnia, somatization and fear, and the prevalence of these conditions were higher in severe or suspected cases [Review of studies of variable quality and significant heterogeneity among their findings]Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full reviewOtherDong F, Liu HL, Dai N, Yang M, Liu JP. A living systematic review of the psychological problems in people suffering from COVID-19. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2021;292:172-188.
   N/A (Protocol)n/aNo[Protocol - results not yet available] A review estimating the prevalence of anxiety, depression, delirium and post-traumatic stress disorder among COVID-19 patients is currently being conductedYes (row content last checked on 2021-08-30)ProtocolOtherShi J, Tian J, Niu M, Yan M, Song Z, Chen Y, et al. Prevalence of anxiety, depression, delirium and post-traumatic stress disorder among COVID-19 patients: Protocol for a living systematic review. PROSPERO. 2020;CRD42020196610.
   N/A (Protocol)n/aYes[Protocol - results not yet available] A review evaluating interventions to foster mental health in patients with COVID-19 or that have been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic is currently being conductedYes (row content last checked on 2021-08-30)ProtocolOtherKunzler AM, Roethke N, Lindner S, Stoffers-Winterling J, Metzendorf MI, Burns J et al. Interventions to foster mental health, psychosocial support, resilience and/or stress management in patients with COVID-19 and patients with mental disorders in face of the COVID-19 pandemic – Protocol for a living systematic review (part of German Evidence Ecosystem CEOsys). PROSPERO. 2021;CRD42021251726.
   N/A (Protocol)n/aYes[Protocol - results not yet available] A review evaluating the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of patients with COVID-19 is currently being conductedYes (row content last checked on 2021-08-30)ProtocolOtherKunzler AM, Roethke N, Lindner S, Stoffers-Winterling J, Burns J, Sachkova A et al. Consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of patients with COVID-19 and patients with mental disorders as well as risk and protective factors for mental health – Protocol for a living systematic review (part of German Evidence Ecosystem CEOsys). PROSPERO. 2021;CRD42021251770.
   N/A (Protocol)n/aYes[Protocol - results not yet available] A review evaluating the impact of the consumption of information about COVID-19 on social media on mental health outcomes is currently being conductedYes (row content last checked on 2021-08-30)ProtocolOtherShah R, Dhital R, Shrestha C. COVID-19 related information consumption on social media and its impact on mental health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis of current evidence. PROSPERO. 2021;CRD42021261437.
   2021-03-198/11NoSleep problems were observed in one third of the population during the COVID-19 pandemic, and was more frequently observed in healthcare workers [Review of studies of variable quality and important heterogeneity among their findings]NoFull reviewOtherAlimoradi Z, Broström A, Tsang HWH, Griffiths MD, Haghayegh S, Ohayon MM, et al. Sleep problems during COVID-19 pandemic and its’ association to psychological distress: A systematic review and meta-analysis. EClinicalMedicine. 2021;36:100916.
   2021-01-128/10NoLockdown measures have had important biopsychosocial consequences, including influences on mental health, particularly among vulnerable populations [Review of studies of moderate quality]NoFull reviewOtherMuehlschlegel PA, Parkinson EA, Chan RY, Arden MA, Armitage CJ. Learning from previous lockdown measures and minimising harmful biopsychosocial consequences as they end: A systematic review. Journal of Global Health. 2021;11:05008.
 Reproductive care for patients with COVID-19         
  Antenatal careN/A (Protocol)n/aNo [Protocol - results not yet available] A systematic review on the symptoms and manifestations of COVID-19 among pregnant women is currently being conducted Yes (row content last checked on 2021-08-30)ProtocolOtherMalouf R, Abbakar N, Burton H, Opondo C. Pregnant Women and their Babies and COVID-19 Pandemic: a Living Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. PROSPERO 2020; CRD42020179989.
   N/A (Protocol)
n/aNo [Protocol - results not yet available] A systematic review on the risks of COVID-19 infection among pregnant women is currently being conductedYes (row content last checked on 2021-08-30)ProtocolOtherMerino L, Meza N, Carrasco C, Bohórquez S, Rada G, Izcovich A. COVID-19 Prognosis in Pregnant Women: a Living Systematic Review. PROSPERO 2020; CRD42020180767. 
   N/A (Protocol)
n/aNo [Protocol - results not yet available] A systematic review to understand the outcomes of pregnancies complicated by COVID-19 is currently being conductedYes (row content last checked on 2021-08-30)ProtocolOtherGatta A, Roberta R, Amodeo S, Giuliana S. A Living Systematic Review and Metanalysis of Pregnancies Complicated by COVID -19. PROSPERO 2020; CRD42020185751. 
   2020-06-26
7/10 No Pregnant women with COVID-19 are less likely to present fever and myalgia, but they might be more likely to be admitted to an intensive care unit compared with non-pregnant women with COVID [Review of observational studies]Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full review Other Allotey J, Stallings E, Bonet M, Yap M, Chatterjee S, Kew T, et al. Clinical manifestations, risk factors, and maternal and perinatal outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 in pregnancy: Living systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2020;370:m3320.  
   2020-08-17
7/9 No The effects of COVID-19 during pregnancy on adverse maternal outcomes are uncertain Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Rapid review Other National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools. Rapid Review Update 1: Is there an increased risk of adverse maternal or fetal outcomes in women infected with COVID-19 during pregnancy? Hamilton, ON: National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools; 2020. 
   2020-06-01
5/9 No Case reports show that SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy might not affect the immune characteristics of women, although it has been associated with a lower-than-predicted number of white blood cells [Review of observational studies of low quality] No Full review Other Areia AL & Mota-Pinto A. Can immunity during pregnancy influence SARS-CoV-2 infection? - A systematic review. Journal of Reproductive Immunology. 2020;142. 
   2020-09-217/11NoAnxiety and depression rates among pregnant women with COVID-19 have been estimated at 42% and 25%, respectively, although there is not enough evidence to compare these with rates in the pre-COVID-19 era [Review of studies of unknown quality and substantial heterogeneity among their findings]NoFull reviewOtherFan S, Guan J, Cao L, Wang M, Zhao H, Chen L, et al. Psychological effects caused by COVID-19 pandemic on pregnant women: A systematic review with meta-analysis. Asian Journal of Psychiatry. 2020;56:102533.
   2021-01-299/11NoEvidence suggests an association between SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy and an increased risk of preeclampsia and stillbirth [Review of studies of moderate to high quality and moderate heterogeneity among their findings]NoFull reviewOtherWei SQ, Bilodeau-Bertrand M, Liu S, Auger N. The impact of COVID-19 on pregnancy outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. CMAJ. 2021.
   2021-02-258/11NoNon pregnant women with COVID-19, were more likely to report headache, fever, cough, myalgia, chest tighness, wheezing,diarrhea and anosmia, compared with pregnant women with COVID-19 and had a higher frequency of comorbidities [Review of studies of variable quality with substantial heterogeneity among some of their findings]NoFull reviewOtherKhan DSA, Pirzada AN, Ali A, Salam RA, Das JK, Lassi ZS. The differences in clinical presentation, management, and prognosis of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 between pregnant and non-pregnant women: A systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021;18(11):5613.
   2020-12-316/11NoEvidence suggests that COVID-19 infection has a negative impact on maternal outcomes among pregnant women at term, and the negative impacts are worse in low- and middle-income countries [Review of studies of unknown quality and important heterogeneity among their findings]NoFull reviewOtherGajbhiye RK, Sawant MS, Kuppusamy P, Surve S, Pasi A, Prusty RK, et al. Differential impact of COVID-19 in pregnant women from high-income countries and low- to middle-income countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. 2021.
  Childbirth 2020-05-04
8/11 No The incidence of COVID-19 infection in pregnant women and the occurrence of preterm deliveries among pregnant women with COVID-19 is uncertain No Full review Other de Melo GC, de Araújo KCGM. COVID-19 infection in pregnant women, preterm delivery, birth weight, and vertical transmission: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Cadernos de saude publica. 2020;36(7):e00087320. 
   2020-06-26
7/10 No Pregnant women with COVID-19 are at higher risk of having preterm birth [Review of observational studies] Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full review Other Allotey J, Stallings E, Bonet M, Yap M, Chatterjee S, Kew T, et al. Clinical manifestations, risk factors, and maternal and perinatal outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 in pregnancy: Living systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2020;370:m3320.  
   2020-04-16
9/11 No Current evidence suggests that the rate of preterm labor is higher in pregnant women with COVID-19, compared to normal pregnant women NoFull reviewOther Gao YJ, Ye L, Zhang JS, Yin YX, Liu M, Yu HB, et al. Clinical features and outcomes of pregnant women with COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC infectious diseases. 2020;20:564.
   N/A (Protocol) n/a No [Protocol - results not yet available] A systematic review to understand the birth outcomes of pregnancies complicated by COVID-19 is currently being conductedYes (row content last checked on 2021-08-30)Protocol Other Gatta A, Roberta R, Amodeo S, Giuliana S. A Living Systematic Review and Metanalysis of Pregnancies Complicated by COVID -19. PROSPERO 2020; CRD42020185751. 
   2020-08-17 7/9 No The effects of COVID-19 during pregnancy on labour and delivery outcomes are uncertain Rapid reviewOtherNational Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools. Rapid Review Update 1: Is there an increased risk of adverse maternal or fetal outcomes in women infected with COVID-19 during pregnancy? Hamilton, ON: National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools; 2020.
   2020-06-187/9YesLimited evidence showed that there was no additional risk associated with vaginal birth compared with caesarian section.NoFull reviewOtherCai J, Tang M, Gao Y, Zhang H, Yang Y, Zhang D, et al. Cesarean section or vaginal delivery to prevent possible vertical transmission from a pregnant mother confirmed with COVID-19 to a neonate: A systematic review. Frontiers in Medicine. 2021;8:634949. 
   2020-04-196/9NoEvidence shows that there might be an elevated risk of worse clinical outcomes and placental pathologies (including placental abruption and placental previa) among pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection [Review of studies of variable quality]NoFull reviewOtherOltean I, Tran J, Lawrence S, Ruschkowski BA, Zeng N, Bardwell C, et al. Impact of SARS-CoV-2 on the clinical outcomes and placental pathology of pregnant women and their infants: A systematic review. Heliyon. 2021;7(3):e06393. 
   2021-01-299/11NoEvidence suggests an association between SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy and an increased risk of preterm birth [Review of studies of moderate to high quality and moderate heterogeneity among their findings]NoFull reviewOtherWei SQ, Bilodeau-Bertrand M, Liu S, Auger N. The impact of COVID-19 on pregnancy outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. CMAJ. 2021.
   2020-12-316/11NoEvidence suggests that COVID-19 infection has a negative impact on childbirth outcomes among pregnant women at term, and the negative impacts are worse in low- and middle-income countries [Review of studies of unknown quality and important heterogeneity among their findings]NoFull reviewOtherGajbhiye RK, Sawant MS, Kuppusamy P, Surve S, Pasi A, Prusty RK, et al. Differential impact of COVID-19 in pregnant women from high-income countries and low- to middle-income countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. 2021.
  Post-partum care
N/A (Protocol)n/a No [Protocol - results not yet available] A systematic review on the symptoms and manifestations of COVID-19 among women in the postpartum period is currently being conducted
Yes (row content last checked on 2021-08-30)ProtocolOther Malouf R, Abbakar N, Burton H, Opondo C. Pregnant Women and their Babies and COVID-19 Pandemic: a Living Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. PROSPERO 2020; CRD42020179989.
  
2020-07-01 5/9 No Evidence suggests that the COVID-19 pandemic has had an impact on the mental health of puerperal women, with depression and anxiety being the most frequently reported conditions
NoFull review Other Vieira LG, Camargo ELS, Schneider G, et al. Repercussions of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Mental Health of Pregnant and Puerperal Women: A Systematic Review. medRxiv 2020. 
   2020-07-05
6/11 No Evidence suggests that anxiety symptoms have increased during the COVID-19 pandemic among women on perinatal periods [Review of observational studies of unknown quality] No Full review Other Hessami K, Romanelli C, Chiurazzi M, Cozzolino M. COVID-19 pandemic and maternal mental health: A systematic review and meta-analysis. The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine. 2020. 
   2020-05-08
10/11 No A meta-analysis showed a low rate of breastfeeding among pregnant women with COVID-19, which was not fully explained by severity or faetal compromise [Review of observational studies of moderate quality] No Full review Other Di Toro F, Gjoka M, Di Lorenzo G, De Seta F, Maso G, Risso FM, et al. Impact of COVID-19 on maternal and neonatal outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical Microbiology and Infection. 2020. 
  Newborn care 2020-04-18
8/10 No A review of case reports and case series found that babies born to an infected mother are not at an increased risk of poor neonatal outcomes, and while a minority tested positive for the virus there is still uncertainty around vertical transmissionNo Full review Other Trippella G, Ciarcià M, Ferrari M, et al. COVID-19 in Pregnant Women and Neonates: A Systematic Review of the Literature with Quality Assessment of the Studies. Pathogens. 2020;9(6):E485. Published 2020 Jun 18. doi:10.3390/pathogens9060485 
   2020-03-269/10NoIt is uncertain whether SARS-CoV-2 transmission via breast milk is possible, and the transmission via other breastfeeding-related fluids (i.e., blood, sweat, droplets) cannot be ruled outYes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full reviewOtherCenteno-Tablante E, Medina-Rivera M, Finkelstein JL, Rayco-Solon P, Garcia-Casal MN, Rogers L, et al. Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 through breast milk and breastfeeding: A living systematic review. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2020.
   N/A (Protocol)
n/a
No [Protocol - results not yet available] A systematic review on the safety of COVID-19 medications for breastfeeding women is currently being conductedYes (row content last checked on 2021-08-30)Protocol Benefits and harms Chang Y, Fisher J, Sutcliffe P, Hillman S, Chien L, Cheema E, et al. The Safety of Prescription-Only Medications for Breastfeeding in Women who Took or were Administered them for Diagnosed or Suspected COVID-19 infection: a living systematic review. PROSPERO 2020; CRD42020187101. 
   N/A (Protocol)
n/a
No [Protocol - results not yet available] A systematic review identifying the factors associated with initiation, continuation and breastfeeding exclusivity is currently being conductedYes (row content last checked on 2021-08-30)Protocol Other Fisher J, Chang Y, Chien L, Hillman S, Sutcliffe P, Bick D. Factors that are Associated with Breastfeeding Initiation, Duration and Exclusivity of Breastfeeding During the SARS-Cov-2 Pandemic? A Living Systematic Review. PROSPERO 2020; CRD42020187235. 
   2020-05-04
8/11 No The effect of COVID-19 infection in pregnant women on the risk of preterm deliveries is uncertain, and the possibillity of vertical transmission to newborns cannot be ruled out No Full review Other de Melo GC, de Araújo KCGM. COVID-19 infection in pregnant women, preterm delivery, birth weight, and vertical transmission: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Cadernos de saude publica. 2020;36(7):e00087320. 
   2020-06-26
7/10 No Neonates delivered by a mother infected with COVID-19 during pregnancy are more likely to be admitted to a neonatal unit [Review of observational studies]Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Full review Other Allotey J, Stallings E, Bonet M, Yap M, Chatterjee S, Kew T, et al. Clinical manifestations, risk factors, and maternal and perinatal outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 in pregnancy: Living systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2020;370:m3320.  
   2020-08-17
7/9 No The effects of COVID-19 during pregnancy on fetal and neonatal outcomes are uncertain Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-18)Rapid reviewOther National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools. Rapid Review Update 1: Is there an increased risk of adverse maternal or fetal outcomes in women infected with COVID-19 during pregnancy? Hamilton, ON: National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools; 2020. 
   2020-05-08
10/11 No The evidence on vertical transmission of COVID-19 from mother to baby is uncertain No Full review Other Di Toro F, Gjoka M, Di Lorenzo G, De Seta F, Maso G, Risso FM, et al. Impact of COVID-19 on maternal and neonatal outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical Microbiology and Infection. 2020. 
   2021-01-299/11NoEvidence suggests an association between SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy and an increased risk of NICU admission [Review of studies of moderate to high quality and moderate heterogeneity among their findings]NoFull reviewOtherWei SQ, Bilodeau-Bertrand M, Liu S, Auger N. The impact of COVID-19 on pregnancy outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. CMAJ. 2021.
   2020-09-085/9NoInsufficient evidence has been found to support the possibility of vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2 [Review of studies of unknown quality]NoFull reviewOtherTolu LB, Ezeh A, Feyissa GT. Vertical transmission of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2: A scoping review. PLoS One. 2021;16(4):e0250196. 
   N/A (Protocol)n/aNo[Protocol - results not yet available] A review evaluating vertical transmission of COVID-19 through breastfeeding is currently being conductedYes (row content last checked on 2021-08-30)ProtocolOtherPizarro AB, Carrasco C, Couve C, Meza N, Verdejo C, Rada G. Vertical transmission of COVID-19 through breastfeeding: A living systematic review protocol. PROSPERO. 2020;CRD42020199542.
   2020-12-316/11NoEvidence suggests that COVID-19 infection has a negative impact on newborn outcomes among pregnant women at term, and the negative impacts are worse in low- and middle-income countries [Review of studies of unknown quality and important heterogeneity among their findings]NoFull reviewOtherGajbhiye RK, Sawant MS, Kuppusamy P, Surve S, Pasi A, Prusty RK, et al. Differential impact of COVID-19 in pregnant women from high-income countries and low- to middle-income countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. 2021.
  Contraception         
  Termination services         
 Domestic and gender-based violence related to the pandemic response         
  See economic and social responses
        
Health promotion more generally         
 Eating healthy food N/A (Protocol)
n/a No [Protocol - results not yet available] A systematic review on the relationship between lifestyle factors (including dietary habits) and COVID-19 infection is currently being conductedYes (row content last checked on 2021-08-30)Protocol Other Wesselius A, der Ven E, Bongaerts B, Dijksma I, Ament S, Falahi F, et al. Lifestyle Factors and COVID-19: a Rapid and Living Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. PROSPERO 2020; CRD42020181902. 
  N/A (Protocol)n/aYes[Protocol - results not yet available] A review evaluating the adherence to mediterranean diet during the COVID-19 era is currently being conductedNoProtocolOtherValle PGD, Nucci D, Bonaccio M, Gianfagna F, Iacoviello L, Odone A. Adherence to the mediterranean diet during the COVID-19 era: A systematic review of observational studies. PROSPERO. 2021; CRD42021232913
  2020-12-216/11NoEvidence shows that the first COVID-19 lockdown significantly increased population body weight [Review of studies of mainly moderate quality]NoFull reviewOtherBakaloudi DR, Barazzoni R, Bischoff SC, Breda J, Wickramasinghe K, Chourdakis M. Impact of the first COVID-19 lockdown on body weight: A combined systematic review and a meta-analysis. Clinical Nutrition. 2021.
  2020-11-286/9NoAlthough snacking behavior has increased for a proportion of the population during COVID-19 lockdowns, it is unclear if an observed decrease in fast-food consumption and the frequency of ordered food demonstrate an increase in the consumption of home-made foods [Review of studies of unclear heterogeneity among their findings]NoFull reviewOtherBakaloudi DR, Jeyakumar DT, Jayawardena R, Chourdakis M. The impact of COVID-19 lockdown on snacking habits, fast-food and alcohol consumption: A systematic review of the evidence. Clinical Nutrition. 2021.
  2020-07-018/10NoEvidence shows that people who experienced restricted physical contact during the COVID-19 pandemic may have increased food consumption and modified their eating styles [Review of studies mainly of moderate quality]NoFull reviewOtherNeira C, Godinho R, Rincón F, Mardones R, Pedroso J. Consequences of the COVID-19 ysndemic for nutritional health: A systematic review. Nutrients. 2021;13(4):1168.
  2021-02-105/9NoIt is unclear if the COVID-19 pandemic has changed the feeding practices of children [Review of studies of mainly low quality]NoFull reviewOtherCampbell H & Wood AC. Challenges in feeding children posed by the COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review of changes in dietary intake combined with a dietitian's perspective. Curr Nutr Rep. 2021:1–11. 
 Avoiding or minimizing unhealthy behaviours like smoking or excessive alcohol intake N/A (Protocol)
n/aNo [Protocol - results not yet available] A systematic review on the relationship between lifestyle factors (including smoking) and COVID-19 infection is currently being conductedYes (row content last checked on 2021-08-30)Protocol Other Wesselius A, der Ven E, Bongaerts B, Dijksma I, Ament S, Falahi F, et al. Lifestyle Factors and COVID-19: a Rapid and Living Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. PROSPERO 2020; CRD42020181902. 
  2020-11-286/9NoHighly variable estimates among countries show that overall alcohol consumption has not significantly changed during COVID-19 lockdowns but there could be substantial variation among groups [Review of studies of unclear heterogeneity among their findings]NoFull reviewOtherBakaloudi DR, Jeyakumar DT, Jayawardena R, Chourdakis M. The impact of COVID-19 lockdown on snacking habits, fast-food and alcohol consumption: A systematic review of the evidence. Clinical Nutrition. 2021.
  2020-06-015/9NoAn increase in the use of tobacco products have been reported as a result of COVID-19 lockdowns, and alternative forms of delivering tobacco cessation programs have shown to be feasible [Review of studies of unlcear quality and substantial heterogeneity among their findings]NoFull reviewOtherNagi R, Reddy SS, Rakesh N, Vyas T. Tobacco cessation is a challenge during COVID-19 pandemic: Is it a good time to quit?: A systematic review. Journal of Indian Academy or Oral Medicine and Radiology. 2021;33(1):82-90 
 Remaining physically active N/A (Protocol)n/aNo [Protocol - results not yet available] A systematic review on the relationship between lifestyle factors (including physical activity) and COVID-19 infection is currently being conductedYes (row content last checked on 2021-08-30)Protocol Other Wesselius A, der Ven E, Bongaerts B, Dijksma I, Ament S, Falahi F, et al. Lifestyle Factors and COVID-19: a Rapid and Living Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. PROSPERO 2020; CRD42020181902. 
  2020-10-018/9NoEvidence shows that physical activity levels have been reduced and sedentary behaviours have increased during COVID-19 lockdowns [Review of studies of unclear quality]NoFull reviewOtherStockwell S, Trott M, Tully M, Shin J, Barnett Y, Butler L, et al. Changes in physical activity and sedentary behaviours from before to during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown: A systematic review.  BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine. 2021;7(1). 
  2020-12-206/11NoEvidence has shown small to moderate effects of home-based exercise programmes in healthy older adults for health and skill related physical fitness [Review of studies of with substantial heterogeneity among their findings, and conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic and before]NoFull reviewBenefits and harmsChaabene H, Prieske O, Herz M, Moran J, Höhne J, Kliegl R, et al. Home-based exercise programmes improve physical fitness of healthy older adults: A PRISMA-compliant systematic review and meta-analysis with relevance for COVID-19. Ageing Research Reviews. 2021;67:101265. 
  2020-07-257/10NoConsistent negative associations have been found between physical activity levels and depression and anxiety rates during the COVID-19 pandemic [Review of observational studies of moderate quality]NoRapid reviewOtherWolf S, Seiffer B, Zeibig J-M, Welkerling J, Brokmeier L, Atrott B, et al. Is physical activity associated with less depression and anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic? A rapid systematic review. Sports Medicine. 2021.
 Staying social connected 2020-04-07
7/10 Yes The effects of using of videoconferencing interventions to reduce loneliness in older adults are uncertain No Full review Benefits and harms Noone C, McSharry J, Smalle M, et al. Video Calls for Reducing Social Isolation and Loneliness in Older People: a Rapid Review. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2020;5:CD013632. 
  2020-04-018/10NoEvidence shows that most effective interventions to reduce loneliness involved cognitive or education components, facilitated communications, and networking between peers, while very few interventions were found to be effective against social isolation [Review of observational studies of mainly low to moderate quality conducted during and pre COVID-19 era]NoRapid reviewOtherWilliams CYK, Townson AT, Kapur M, Ferreira AF, Nunn R, Galante J, Phillips V, Gentry S, Usher-Smith JA. Interventions to reduce social isolation and loneliness during COVID-19 physical distancing measures: A rapid systematic review. PLoS One. 2021 Feb 17;16(2):e0247139.
* The risk of bias assessment, including the likely publication bias, suggests that the degree of confidence one can place in the principal finding is likely lower than the author’s conclusion suggests