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COVID-19 evidence from HSE and SSE


As part of our ongoing effort to support decision-makers in their work related to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Forum is actively searching Health Systems Evidence and Social Systems Evidence for systematic reviews that are relevant to (if not explicitly conducted in the context of) the changes to health-system arrangements, as well as the social and economic responses, that decision-makers may be considering in response to COVID-19. We profile all relevant reviews using the COVID-END taxonomy of decisions related to COVID-19, showing only those decision-making domains for which documents have been identified. To support ease of use, each relevant document is listed with information about its focus, quality (for reviews only), date of last search (or publication), and countries where the research was conducted. For the many additional resources available to support decisions related to COVID-19, see our guide to key COVID-19 evidence sources for a list of resources that also address public-health measures and clinical management of COVID-19 and pandemic-related conditions (such as mental health and addictions issues).

Health-system arrangements

Broad decisions Specific decisions Available options Document focus Quality Date of last search (or updating) Countries
Approach to population-health management for COVID-19 and for those whose care is disrupted by COVID-19
Maintaining gains made in population-health management (e.g., population segmentation, virtual care) and spreading and scaling them    Early internet-delivered interventions for individuals exposed to traumatic events are promising  5/9 2017   Australia(2); Netherlands(1); United States(4)
 Delivery arrangements
Service planning for COVID-19 prevention Re-locating hospital-based ambulatory clinics, cancer treatments, etc.
  Drive-through clinics are essential component of emergency preparedness
3/9 2019  Not reported(1); United States(12) 
  Changing home and community care procedures
  Public and private practitioners should receive periodic training, supportive supervision and regular feedback to improve routine disease surveillance  6/9  2016  Bangladesh(1); Ethiopia(1); Global(4); Hong Kong(1); India(18); Indonesia(1); Iran (Islamic Republic of)(2); Kenya(1); Latin America(1); Malaysia(1); Morocco(1); Myanmar(1); Nepal(1); Nigeria(1); Pakistan(7); Philippines(1); South Africa(1); Taiwan(1); Thailand(1); Uganda(1); Vietnam(1)
  Scaling up/down capacity to manage the pandemic-related impacts on health more generally (e.g., mental health and addictions)    Interventions can help mitigate the psychological distress experienced by healthcare workers in emerging disease outbreaks
10/11 2020 Canada(10); China(12); Germany(1); Greece(1); Hong Kong(8); Japan(1); Korea (Republic of)(5); Liberia(1); Mexico(1)
Netherlands(1); Saudi Arabia(2); Singapore(6); Taiwan(10)
      Resilience training may be of benefit to health professionals  5/10 2018  Australia(4); Canada(2); 
Sierra Leone(1); 
United Kingdom(2); United States(20)

      Moral distress is influenced by the interplay between the disaster responder and the context
3/9 Not reported  Not available 
  Triage protocols
  Telephone triage and advice services can reduce clinical workload
Not available yet
Not reported  Australia(4); Canada(5); Denmark(4); France(1); India(1); Ireland(3); Israel(1); Italy(1); Netherlands(3); New Zealand(2); Not reported(1); Spain(1); Sweden(3); Switzerland(1); Taiwan(1); United Kingdom(9); United States(8) 
      Using reverse triage can moderately improve the surge capacity of hospitals
3/9 2014  USA (8); Australia (3); UK (England) (2); Ireland (1); UAE (1)
Infrastructure planning and resource allocation
Personal protective equipment (under shortage conditions), including N95 respirators for health workers  Production, allocation, usage, conservation, re-use (includes de-contamination), and re-purposing  Using personal protective equipment covering more of the body leads to better protection from highly infectious diseases due to exposure to contaminated body fluids, but may be less comfortable and thus lead to more contamination  8/10  2020  Australia(1); Canada(2); China(1); France(1); Germany(1); Hong Kong(3); Ireland(1); Mexico(1); Peru(1); Russian Federation(1); United Kingdom(1); United Kingdom (England)(1); United States(12) 
      Standardizing protocols, personal protective equipment types, frequency of training, and financial support can improve hospital preparedness for pandemics
5/9 2019  Australia(2); 
United Kingdom (England)(1); 
United States(20) 
Workforce planning (including workforce shortages management) and development
Training in new procedures    Developing a model for disaster-nursing services can help nursing managers gain a better understanding of processes of disaster preparedness
5/9 2016  Iran (Islamic Republic of)(1); 
Not reported(1); 
United Kingdom(1); 
United States(4) 

  Training and post-disaster interventions can help employees who have been exposed to traumatic situations
6/10 2015  Australia(1); Canada(2); China(1); Indonesia(1); Norway(1); United Kingdom(1); United States(8)
      Training and intervention programs addressing potential morally injurious experiences can help nurses' safety and retention in the aftermath of  patient safety incidents
4/9  2018  Australia(1); Brazil(3); Greece(1); Iran (Islamic Republic of)(1); Israel(1); Norway(1); Taiwan(1); United Kingdom (England)(1); United Kingdom (Scotland)(1); United States(10) 
      Factors across organizational, team and individual levels can enable psychological safety in healthcare teams 6/9 2019  Australia(1); Belgium(2); Canada & USA(1); Ghana(1); Hong Kong(2); Ireland(1); Israel(2); Japan(1); Netherlands(1); Spain(1); Sweden(2); United Kingdom (England)(5); United States(16) 
Financial arrangements
Financing health services
    Putting in place an adaptive system to allocate scarce resources is crucial during mass casualty events
9/10 2011 Armenia(1); Australia(6); Belgium(1); Brazil(1); Canada(7); China(3); Finland(1); Germany(10); Iceland(1); India(1); Israel(10); Japan(2); Mexico(1); Netherlands(4); Norway(1); Pakistan(1); Sweden(2); Turkey(1); United Kingdom(8); United States(108) 
Governance arrangements (who can make what decisions)
Policy authority Other   Ensuring that disaster response plans are guided by ethical standards
4/9  2016  Africa(3); Chad(1); France(1); Global(13); Haiti(5); India(1); Israel(1); Italy(1); Japan(1); Rwanda(1); Sweden(1); Turkey(1); United States(10) 

    Ensuring that mayors and governors play effective leadership roles during crises
To be completed 2014  To be completed 

Economic and social responses

Broad decisions Specific decisions Available options Document focus Quality Date of last search (or updating) Countries
Community and social services
Supports for community resilience 
  Finding innovative ways to promote connection and adapting rituals while maintaining respect are essential to support adults bereaved during pandemics
4/9 2020  Haiti(1); 
Sierra Leone(2); 

  Five factors can enhance the resilience of older adults experiencing disasters: 1) demographic; 2) physical; 3) psychological; 4) spiritual; and 5) socio-cultural factors
5/9 2019  Australia(1); Philippines(2); United States(2) 
      Ensuring that you have all the necessities to shelter in place is an important disaster risk reduction strategy
5/9 2016  Canada(1); China(1); Guam(1); Hong Kong(1); Iran (Islamic Republic of)(1); Japan(2); Nepal(1); Not reported(5); Puerto Rico(1); Thailand(1); United States(18)
      Community resilience has nine core elements: local knowledge, community networks and relationships, communication, health, governance and leadership, resources, economic investment, preparedness, and mental outlook  5/9  2013  Not reported 
      The three most frequent adaptation strategies are empowering local governments and leaders, raising community awareness, and enhancing community infrastructure and communication
3/9 2017  Not reported 
      Social capital is a central mechanism through which community resilience reduces disaster impact and enhances recovery
1/9 2019  Not reported 
Private transportation restrictions
Air, ground, rail
International, inter-region (e.g., no travel to second homes)

Managing airports in non-aviation related disasters can be influenced by stakeholder collaboration, scheduling problems, medical preparedness, infrastructure planning and corporate social responsibility
4/9 2017  Australia(1); China(2); Croatia(1); Czech Republic(1); Japan(4); Kenya(1); Not reported(3); Saudi Arabia(1); Taiwan(1); Turkey(1); United States(7)