Evidence about molecules and vaccines

Broad and specific decisions Criteria for 'best evidence synthesis' Details to support relevance assessment Additional decision-relevant details Citation
Date of last search Quality (AMSTAR) rating Evidence-certainty (e.g., GRADE) assessment availableKey findings
Living evidence synthesisType of synthesisType of question
Infection prevention         
 Vaccination
  Safety and efficacy of two doses of the same vaccine if two doses are recommended (or a single dose if a single dose is recommended)2022-01-057/9No[BioNTech/Pfizer against variants of concern] Pfizer/Comirnaty vaccine may prevent infection from the Omicron variant of concern up to 44 days and provide no protection after 164 days after the second dose; it may also prevent severe disease, death and transmission, while it probably prevents symptomatic infection from the Delta variant of concern (other variants are also included in the report) Yes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Rapid reviewBenefits and harms
Iorio A, Little J, Linkins L, Abdelkader W, Bennett D, Lavis JN. COVID-19 living evidence profile #6 (version 6.22): What is the efficacy and effectiveness of available COVID-19 vaccines in general and specifically for variants of concern? Hamilton: Health Information Research Unit, 6 January 2022.
   2021-10-0110/11Yes[BioNTech/Fosun Pharma/Pfizer vaccine (age-group analysis available)] Compared to placebo, vaccination with BNT162b2 reduces the incidence of symptomatic cases of COVID-19, and probably reduces severe and critical disease substantially, although there remains uncertainty about the effect on mortality; it may increase the incidence of severe adverse events [Note: this declarative title was written based on last posted summary of findings table]Yes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full review Benefits and harms COVID NMA. Overall effectiveness and safety of all vaccines vs placebo. 2021.
   2021-07-127/11Yes[BioNTech/Pfizer] Vaccination with the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine reduces the risk of contracting COVID-19 substantially even after the first dose and it probably reduces the risk of severe COVID-19, whereas its effects on other outcomes are yet to be determined; the incidence of serious adverse events may slightly increase, whereas the incidence of any adverse event substantially increaseYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine - Efficacy and effectiveness of the vaccine. Pan American Health Organization.; 2021.
   2021-07-128/11Yes[CanSino] No evidence from phase III randomized controlled trials has been reported to enable an assessment of the safety and efficacy of the CanSino vaccineYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. CanSino COVID-19 vaccine - Efficacy and effectiveness of the vaccine. Pan American Health Organization.; 2021.
   2021-12-1010/11Yes [Coronavac vaccine] Compared to placebo, vaccination with CoronaVac may reduce the incidence of symptomatic cases of COVID-19 by 50%, close to the lowest level deemed effective by the WHO and it may substantially reduce the incidence of severe disease due to COVID-19; the evidence for any difference in serious adverse events is uncertain, although the vaccination probably increases the incidence of any adverse eventYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Coronavac vs placebo. 2021
   2021-07-126/11Yes[CoronaVac/Sinovac vaccine] Vaccination with the CoronaVac/Sinovac vaccine reduces the risk of contracting COVID-19 (even after the first dose) and it probably reduces the risk of severe COVID-19, whereas its effects on other outcomes are yet to be determined; the incidence of serious adverse events probably does not increase, whereas the incidence of any adverse event is higherYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Sinovac COVID-19 vaccine - Efficacy and effectiveness of the vaccine. Pan American Health Organization.; 2021.
   2022-01-057/9NoYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Rapid reviewBenefits and harms
Iorio A, Little J, Linkins L, Abdelkader W, Bennett D, Lavis JN. COVID-19 living evidence profile #6 (version 6.22): What is the efficacy and effectiveness of available COVID-19 vaccines in general and specifically for variants of concern? Hamilton: Health Information Research Unit, 6 January 2022.
   2021-07-126/9Yes[Covaxin] No evidence from phase III randomized controlled trials has been reported to enable an assessment of the safety and efficacy of the Covaxin vaccineYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Bharat Biotech COVID-19 vaccine - Efficacy and effectiveness of the vaccine. Pan American Health Organization.; 2021.
   2022-01-057/9No[Covaxin vaccine against variants of concern] Covaxin/BBV152 vaccine may provide protection against symptomatic infection due to the Delta variant of concern Yes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Rapid reviewBenefits and harms
Iorio A, Little J, Linkins L, Abdelkader W, Bennett D, Lavis JN. COVID-19 living evidence profile #6 (version 6.22): What is the efficacy and effectiveness of available COVID-19 vaccines in general and specifically for variants of concern? Hamilton: Health Information Research Unit, 6 January 2022.
   2021-12-1010/11Yes[EpiVacCorona] The effects of vaccination with EpiVacCorona are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. EPIVACCORONA VS PLACEBO. COVID NMA: Vaccines for COVID-19 patients. 2021.
   2021-07-126/9Yes[EpiVacCorona] No evidence from phase III randomized controlled trials has been reported to enable an assessment the safety and efficacy of the EpiVacCorona vaccineYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Vector Institute COVID-19 vaccine - Efficacy and effectiveness of the vaccine. Pan American Health Organization.; 2021.
   2021-12-1010/11Yes [Gamaleya Research Institute vaccine] Compared to placebo, vaccination with Gam-COVID-Vac rAd26-S/rAd5-S probably reduces the incidence of symptomatic and severe cases of COVID-19 substantially, although there remains uncertainty about the impact on reducing mortality; the vaccination may not increase the incidence of serious adverse event, but the incidence of any adverse event was not reportedYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full review Benefits and harms COVID NMA. Gam-COVID-Vac rAd26-S/rAd5-S vs Placebo (Gamaleya Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology). 2020. 
   2021-07-126/11Yes[Gamaleya Research Institute vaccine] Vaccination with the Gamaleya vaccine probably reduces the risk of contracting COVID-19 substantially (even after the first dose) and it may reduce the risk of severe COVID-19, whereas its effects on other outcomes are yet to be determined; the incidence of serious adverse events may not be increasedYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Gamaleya COVID-19 vaccine - Efficacy and effectiveness of the vaccine. Pan American Health Organization.; 2021.
   2022-01-057/9No[Johnson & Johnson against variants of concern] Johnson & Johnson/AD26.COV2.S vaccine may prevent infection (including symptomatic infection and death from the Delta variant of concern (other variants are also included in the report) Yes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Rapid reviewBenefits and harms
Iorio A, Little J, Linkins L, Abdelkader W, Bennett D, Lavis JN. COVID-19 living evidence profile #6 (version 6.22): What is the efficacy and effectiveness of available COVID-19 vaccines in general and specifically for variants of concern? Hamilton: Health Information Research Unit, 6 January 2022.
   2021-12-1010/11Yes [Johnson & Johnson's Janssen vaccine] Vaccination with AD26.COV2.S probably reduces the incidence of symptomatic cases of COVID-19 by around 67%, and it probably reduces severe disease and mortality, while the incidence of serious adverse events may not increaseYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Ad26.COV2.S (5×10^10 vp) D0 vs Placebo. 2021.
   2021-07-126/11Yes[Janssen vaccine] Vaccination with the Janssen vaccine reduces the risk of contracting COVID-19 substantially and reduces the risk of severe COVID-19, whereas its effects on other outcomes are yet to be determined; the vaccination increases the incidence of serious adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Janssen COVID-19 vaccine - Efficacy and effectiveness of the vaccine. Pan American Health Organization.; 2021.
   2022-01-057/9No[Moderna against variants of concern] Moderna/Spikevax vaccine may prevent infection from the Omicron variant up to 44 days and provide no protection up to 164 days after the second dose; it may also prevent infection (including symptomatic infection), severe disease, death and transmission from the Delta variant of concern (other variants are also included in the report) Yes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Rapid reviewBenefits and harms
Iorio A, Little J, Linkins L, Abdelkader W, Bennett D, Lavis JN. COVID-19 living evidence profile #6 (version 6.22): What is the efficacy and effectiveness of available COVID-19 vaccines in general and specifically for variants of concern? Hamilton: Health Information Research Unit, 6 January 2022.

   2021-12-1010/11Yes [ModernaTX vaccine (age-group analysis available)] Compared to placebo, vaccination with mRNA-1273 probably reduces the incidence of symptomatic cases of COVID-19 substantially, and it may reduce severe disease, while the incidence of serious adverse events is probably not increasedYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full review Benefits and harms COVID NMA. mRNA-1273 vs placebo (ModernaTX). 2020. 
   2021-07-126/11Yes[ModernaTX vaccine] Vaccination with the ModernaTX vaccine reduces the risk of contracting COVID-19 substantially (but it may reduce this risk with the first dose) and reduces the risk of severe COVID-19, whereas its effects on other outcomes are yet to be determined; the vaccination probably does not increase the incidence of serious adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Moderna COVID-19 vaccine - Efficacy and effectiveness of the vaccine. Pan American Health Organization.; 2021.
   2022-01-057/9No[Novavax against variants of concern] No studies have been identified evaluating Novavax/NVX-Co2373 vaccine against the Delta variant of concern Yes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Rapid reviewBenefits and harms
Iorio A, Little J, Linkins L, Abdelkader W, Bennett D, Lavis JN. COVID-19 living evidence profile #6 (version 6.22): What is the efficacy and effectiveness of available COVID-19 vaccines in general and specifically for variants of concern? Hamilton: Health Information Research Unit, 6 January 2022.
   2021-12-1010/11Yes[Novavax vaccine] The effects of vaccination against COVID-19 with the Novavax vaccine are currently uncertain; it probably slightly increase the risk of any adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. NOVAVAX - NVX-COV2373 VS PLACEBO. COVID NMA: Vaccines for COVID-19 patients. 2021.
   2021-07-128/11Yes[Novavax] Vaccination with Novavax reduces the risk of contracting COVID-19 and probably reduces severe diseaseYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Novavax COVID-19 vaccine - Efficacy and effectiveness of the vaccine. Pan American Health Organization.; 2021.
   2022-01-057/9No[Oxford/AstraZeneca against variants of concern] Oxford/AstraZeneca/ Vaxzevria vaccine may provide no protection from symptomatic infection cause by the Omicron variant of concern; it may prevent symptomatic infection and death, while it may provide limited protection from transmission of the Delta variant of concern (other variants are also included in the report) Yes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Rapid reviewBenefits and harms
Iorio A, Little J, Linkins L, Abdelkader W, Bennett D, Lavis JN. COVID-19 living evidence profile #6 (version 6.22): What is the efficacy and effectiveness of available COVID-19 vaccines in general and specifically for variants of concern? Hamilton: Health Information Research Unit, 6 January 2022.
   2021-12-1010/11Yes [Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccine] Compared to vaccinating with MedACWY (meningitis vaccine), vaccination with ChAdOx1 probably reduces the cases of symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection, and may reduce severe or critical disease and hospitalisations; the effects on mortality are uncertain, and adverse events are probably less frequent.Yes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full review Benefits and harms COVID NMA. ChAdOx1 vs MenACWY (University of Oxford/AstraZeneca ). 2020. 
   2021-07-126/11Yes[Oxford/AstraZeneca] Vaccination with the EU Nodes - Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccine reduces the risk of contracting COVID-19 and may reduce the risk of severe COVID-19, whereas its effects on other outcomes are yet to be determined; the vaccination probably does not increase the overall frequency of serious adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. EU Nodes-AstraZeneca/ Oxford; AstraZeneca/SK BIO; Serum Institute of India COVID-19 vaccine - Efficacy and effectiveness of the vaccine. Pan American Health Organization.; 2021.
   2021-12-1010/11Yes[Sinopharm - strain HBO2] Vaccination with Sinopharm HBO2 probably reduces the incidence of symptomatic cases of COVID-19, and it may reduce severe disease, while the incidence of adverse events is probably not increasedYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. SARS-COV-2 STRAIN HBO2 VS PLACEBO. COVID NMA: Vaccines for COVID-19 patients. 2021.
   2021-12-1010/11Yes[Sinopharm - strain WIV04] Vaccination with Sinopharm WIV04 probably reduces the incidence of symptomatic cases of COVID-19, and it may reduce severe disease, while the incidence of adverse events is probably not increasedYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. SARS-COV-2 STRAIN WIV04 VS PLACEBO. COVID NMA: Vaccines for COVID-19 patients. 2021.
   2021-07-126/9Yes[Sinopharm - WIBP] No evidence from phase III randomized controlled trials has been reported to enable and assessment of the safety and efficacy of the Sinopharm - WIBP vaccineYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Sinopharm/WIBP COVID-19 vaccine - Efficacy and effectiveness of the vaccine. Pan American Health Organization.; 2021.
   2021-07-126/9Yes[Zifivax] No evidence from phase III randomized controlled trials has been reported to enable an assessment of the safety and efficacy of the Zifivax vaccineYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Anhui Zhifei Longcom COVID-19 vaccine - Efficacy and effectiveness of the vaccine. Pan American Health Organization.; 2021.
   2021-02-088/11NoA review exploring factors influencing the efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines found that type of the vaccine technology (e.g., mRNA versus adenovirus), age, sex and the infection rate in the population did not influence vaccine efficacyNo Full reviewBenefits and harmsCalzetta L, Ritondo BL, Coppola A, Matera MG, Di Daniele N, Rogliani P. Factors influencing the efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines: A quantitative synthesis of phase III trials. Vaccines (Basel). 2021;9(4):341.
  Safety and efficacy of one dose of one vaccine and a second dose of a different vaccine (i.e., mix and match or heterologous prime and boost)2022-01-057/9No[BioNTech/Pfizer or Moderna to complete vaccination scheme started with Astra Zeneca against variants of concern] Vaccinating with Astra Zeneca followed by BioNTech/Pfizer or Moderna vaccine may prevent infection (including symptomatic infection) from the Delta variant of concern Yes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Rapid reviewBenefits and harms
Iorio A, Little J, Linkins L, Abdelkader W, Bennett D, Lavis JN. COVID-19 living evidence profile #6 (version 6.22): What is the efficacy and effectiveness of available COVID-19 vaccines in general and specifically for variants of concern? Hamilton: Health Information Research Unit, 6 January 2022.
   2021-08-2710/11Yes[AstraZeneca to complete vaccination scheme started with BioNTech/Pfizer BNT16b2 at 28 days vs two doses of BioNTech/Pfizer BNT16b2 separated by 28 days] Compared to vaccination with two doses of the BNT16b2 vaccine, having a second dose of AstraZeneca after a first dose of BNT16b2 may increase the risk of any adverse event, while the incidence of serious adverse events is uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsBNT/CHA-28 VS BNT/BNT-28 COVID NMA; 2021.
   2021-08-2710/11Yes[BioNTech/Pfizer BNT162b2 to complete vaccination scheme started with AstraZeneca at 28 days vs two doses AstraZeneca separated by 28 days] Compared to vaccination with two doses of the AstraZeneca vaccine 28 days apart, having a second dose of BNT16b2 after a first dose of AstraZeneca may not increase the risk of any adverse event, while the incidence of serious adverse events is uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCHAD/BNT-28 VS CHAD/CHAD-28. COVID NMA; 2021.
   2022-01-057/9Yes[BioNTech/Pfizer BNT162b2] 3 doses of Pfizer/Comirnaty vaccine may prevent infection from the Omicron variant of concern up to 30 days after the third dose, while it may prevent symptomatic infection from the Omicron variant of concern up to 14 days after the third doseYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Rapid reviewBenefits and harms
Iorio A, Little J, Linkins L, Abdelkader W, Bennett D, Lavis JN. COVID-19 living evidence profile #6 (version 6.22): What is the efficacy and effectiveness of available COVID-19 vaccines in general and specifically for variants of concern? Hamilton: Health Information Research Unit, 6 January 2022.
Clinical management of COVID-19 and pandemic-related health issues        
Prophylaxis for COVID-19
Prophylaxis for COVID-19          
 Drugs to prevent severe COVID-19 infection 2021-01-2010/11Yes[All drugs] No molecules studied in large clinical trials have demonstrated benefits as a prophylactic treatment for COVID-19Yes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsBartoszko JJ, Siemieniuk RAC, Kum E, Qasim A, Zeraatkar D, Ge L, et al. Prophylaxis for covid-19: Living systematic review and network meta-analysis. The BMJ. 2021;373(8290);n949.
  
2021-12-157/11Yes[Bamlinivimab] Bamlinivimab probably decreases the incidence of symptomatic infection among exposed individualsYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing living update of potential COVID-19 therapeutics: Summary of rapid systematic reviews. Rapid review - December 15th, 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2020-09-214/9No[Chloroquine] No evidence has been found on the effects of chloroquine as a prophylactic treatment to prevent COVID-19Yes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsHernandez AV, Roman YM, Pasupuleti V, Barboza JJ, White CM. Update alert 3: Hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine for the treatment or prophylaxis of COVID-19. Annals of Internal Medicine 2020:L20-1257.
   2021-01-2010/11Yes[Hydroxychloroquine] Adding prophylactic hydroxychloroquine to standard care does not have an important effect on mortality and hospitalization, and probably increases adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsBartoszko JJ, Siemieniuk RAC, Kum E, Qasim A, Zeraatkar D, Ge L, et al. Prophylaxis for covid-19: Living systematic review and network meta-analysis. The BMJ. 2021;373(8290);n949.
   2022-01-0710/11Yes[Hydroxychloroquine] Using hydroxychloroquine as a prophylaxis strategy probably slightly reduces secondary COVID-19 cases, it may not have an effect on hospitalizations, and probably increases the risk of adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsPreventative treatments: Hydroxychloroquine vs placebo. COVID NMA; 2020.
   2020-09-214/9No[Hydroxychloroquine] No evidence has been found on the effects of chloroquine as a prophylactic treatment to prevent COVID-19Yes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsHernandez AV, Roman YM, Pasupuleti V, Barboza JJ, White CM. Update alert 3: Hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine for the treatment or prophylaxis of COVID-19. Annals of Internal Medicine 2020:L20-1257.
   2021-12-157/11Yes[Hydroxychloroquine] Hydroxychloroquine may not reduce the risk of infection in individuals exposed to COVID-19 and it may slightly increase mortality and serious adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing living update of potential COVID-19 therapeutics: Summary of rapid systematic reviews. Rapid review - December 15th, 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-01-2010/11Yes[Ivermectin] The effects of using ivermectin as a prophylactic treatment for COVID-19 are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsBartoszko JJ, Siemieniuk RAC, Kum E, Qasim A, Zeraatkar D, Ge L, et al. Prophylaxis for covid-19: Living systematic review and network meta-analysis. The BMJ. 2021;373(8290);n949.
   2021-01-2010/11Yes[Ivermectin + iota-carrageenan] The effects of using ivermectin with iota-carrageenan as a prophylactic treatment for COVID-19 are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsBartoszko JJ, Siemieniuk RAC, Kum E, Qasim A, Zeraatkar D, Ge L, et al. Prophylaxis for covid-19: Living systematic review and network meta-analysis. The BMJ. 2021;373(8290);n949.
   2021-02-018/11Yes[Ivermectin] Whereas limited evidence was found on the uses of ivermectin for COVID-19 prophylaxis in healthy populations, the evidence shows that it may slightly reduce COVID-19 infectionNoFull reviewBenefits and harmsBryant A, Lawrie TA, Dowswell T, Fordham E. Ivermectin for prevention and treatment of COVID-19 infection: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Research Square. 2021.
   2021-05-2611/11Yes[Ivermectin] The effects of using ivermectin to prevent COVID-19 infection are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsPopp M, Stegemann M, Metzendorf MI, Gould S, Kranke P, Meybohm P. Ivermectin for preventing and treating COVID-19. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2021;(7):CD015017.
   2021-12-157/11Yes[REGEN-COV (casirivimab and imdevimab)] Using REGEN-COV (casirivimab and imdevimab) in exposed asymptomatic individuals reduces symptomatic infectionsYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing living update of potential COVID-19 therapeutics: Summary of rapid systematic reviews. Rapid review - December 15th, 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   N/A (Protocol)n/aYes[Protocol - results not yet available] A review evaluating the effects of using monoclonal antibodies to prevent COVID-19 is currently being conductedYes (row content last checked on 2021-05-17)ProtocolBenefits and harmsHirsch C, Valk SJ, Piechotta V, Chai KL, Estcourt LJ, Monsef I, et al. SARS-CoV-2-neutralising monoclonal antibodies to prevent COVID-19. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2021;(5):CD014945
   N/A (Protocol)n/aNo[Protocol - results not yet available] A review evaluating the effectiveness and safety of chemoprophylaxis for COVID-19 is currently being conducted Yes (row content last checked on 2021-10-25)ProtocolBenefits and harmsWang Y, Li B, Zi H, Ma L, Zhao MJ, Huang Q, et al. Effectiveness and safety of chemoprophylaxis for COVID-19: A living systematic review and meta-analysis. PROSPERO. 2020; CRD42020190210
Clinical treatment of COVID-19
 Drugs to treat COVID-19         
  Anti-virals2022-01-0710/11Yes[Baloxavir marboxil] The effects of adding baloxavir marboxil to standard care are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Baloxavir Marboxil vs standard care. 2020.
   2022-01-0710/11No[Baloxavir marboxil vs favipiravir] The effects of baloxavir marboxil compared with favipravir are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsFavipiravir vs Baloxavir Marboxil. COVID NMA; 2020.
   2022-01-0710/11No[Baloxavir marboxil vs lopinavir + ritonavir] The effects of baloxavir marboxil compared with lopinavir + ritonavir or darunavir/cobicistat + umifenovir + interferon-a are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsBaloxavir Marboxil vs Lopinavir + Ritonavir or Darunavir/Cobicistat + Umifenovir + Interferon-a. COVID NMA; 2020.
   2022-01-0710/11No[Darunavir/cobicistat] The effects of adding darunavir/cobicistat to standard care are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Darunavir/Cobicistat vs Standard Care. 2020.
   2021-12-157/11Yes[Emtricitabine/tenofovir] The effects of emtricitabine/tenofovir to treat COVID-19 patients are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing living update of potential COVID-19 therapeutics: Summary of rapid systematic reviews. Rapid review - December 15th, 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2022-01-0710/11Yes[Favipiravir] In COVID-19 hospitalized patients, adding favipiravir to standard care may slightly increase viral negative conversion and may make little or no difference in clinical improvement; the effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Favipiravir vs standard care. 2020.
   2021-12-157/11Yes[Favipiravir] Using favipiravir probably does not have an effect on time to symptom resolution among COVID-19 patients, whereas it may increase mortality and mechanical ventilationYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing living update of potential COVID-19 therapeutics: Summary of rapid systematic reviews. Rapid review - December 15th, 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2022-01-0710/11No[Favipiravir vs lopinavir + ritonavir] The effects of favipriavir compared with lopinavir + ritonavir or darunavir/cobicistat + umifenovir + interferon-a are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsFavipiravir vs Lopinavir + Ritonavir or Darunavir/Cobicistat + Umifenovir + Interferon-a. COVID NMA; 2020.
   2022-01-0710/11Yes[Favipiravir vs umifenovir] The benefits of favipiravir compared with umifenovir are uncertain while it may reduce adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsFavipiravir vs Umifenovir. COVID NMA; 2020
   2021-09-0310/11Yes[Lopinavir + ritonavir] Lopinavir + ritonavir may not reduce mortality and mechanical ventilation, and it may not have an effect in other patient clinical outcomesYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsSiemieniuk R, Bartoszko JJ, Ge L, Zeraatkar D, Izcovich A, Kum E, et al. Update to living systematic review on drug treatments for covid-19. BMJ. 2021;370:m2980.
   2022-01-0710/11No[Lopinavir + ritonavir] Adding lopinavir + ritonavir to novaferon and standard care in moderate or severely ill people may increase the viral negative conversion but effects for other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsNovaferon + Lopinavir + Ritonavir vs Novaferon. COVID NMA; 2020
   2022-01-0710/11Yes[Lopinavir + ritonavir] Adding lopinavir + ritonavir to standard care makes little or no difference on mortality, and may have a slight effect on the incidence of clinical improvement or viral conversion, whereas it may not substantially increase adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsLopinavir + Ritonavir vs Standard Care. COVID NMA; 2020
   2021-12-157/11Yes[Lopinavir + ritonavir] Using lopinavir + ritonavir probably does not reduce mortality and may not increase the severe adverse events in COVID-19 patientsYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing living update of potential COVID-19 therapeutics: Summary of rapid systematic reviews. Rapid review - December 15th, 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2022-01-0710/11Yes[Lopinavir + ritonavir vs hydroxychloroquine] Compared to hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir + ritonavir may slightly increase viral negative conversion, while it probably slightly increases the serious adverse events; the effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Lopinavir-Ritonavir vs Hydroxychloroquine. 2021.
   2022-01-0710/11No[Lopinavir + ritonavir vs novaferon] The effects of lopinavir + ritinoavir compared to novaferon are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsNovaferon vs Lopinavir + Ritonavir. COVID NMA; 2020.
   2022-01-0710/11Yes[Lopinavir + ritonavir vs umifenovir] Among hospitalized patients, umifenovir may reduce adverse events compared with lopinavir + ritonavir, and its effects on other clinical outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Lopinavir + Ritonavir vs Umifenovir. 2020.
   2021-05-106/9Yes[Molnupiravir] The effects of molnupiravir cannot yet be assessed; upcoming studies are expected to be published soonYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsEUnetHTA Rolling Collaborative Review (RCR19) Authoring Team. Molnupiravir for the treatment of COVID-19. Diemen (The Netherlands): EUnetHTA; 2021. 
   2022-01-0710/11Yes[Molnupiravir] No synthesis available because only one trial has been reportedYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Molnupiravir vs placebo. 2021.
   n/an/an/a[Nirmatrelvir] No synthesis has been conducted on nirmatrelvir (Paxlovid)n/an/an/an/a
   2021-09-0310/11Yes[Remdesivir] Remdesivir probably slightly reduces mortality and it probably does not have an effect on the duration of mechanical ventilation; it may slightly reduce the risk of mechanical ventilation, while it may not increase adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsSiemieniuk R, Bartoszko JJ, Ge L, Zeraatkar D, Izcovich A, Kum E, et al. Update to living systematic review on drug treatments for covid-19. BMJ. 2021;370:m2980.
   2022-01-0710/11Yes[Remdesivir] In hospitalized COVID-19 patients, remdesivir probably reduces disease progression, probably makes little or no difference in mortality at 28 days and it may slightly increase clinical improvement; it probably does not increase the incidence of any adverse events, and it may not increase serious adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Remdesivir vs standard care/placebo. 2020.
   2022-01-0710/11Yes[Remdesivir] Using remdesivir for five days compared to 10 days may increase disease progression, and increase the frequency of serious adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Remdesivir 5 days vs Remdesivir 10 days. 2020.
   2021-12-157/11Yes[Remdesivir] Using remdesivir may not have an important effect on mortality, and it may reduce the need for invasive ventilation, and it may improve time to symptom resolutionYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing living update of potential COVID-19 therapeutics: Summary of rapid systematic reviews. Rapid review - December 15th, 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-04-1610/11Yes[Remdesivir] Remdesivir probably has little or no difference on mortality and may not have an effect on clinical improvement, while it probably decreases the risk of serious adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsAnsems  K, Grundeis  F, Dahms  K, Mikolajewska  A, Thieme  V, Piechotta  V, et al. Remdesivir for the treatment of COVID‐19. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews .2021;8:Art. No.: CD014962. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD014962. 
   2022-01-0710/11Yes[Ribavirin + interferon-b-1b] The effects of adding ribavarin and interferon-b-1b to liponavir + ritonavir are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsLopinavir + Ritonavir + Ribavirin + Interferon-b-1b vs Lopinavir + Ritonavir. COVID NMA; 2020
   2022-01-0710/11Yes[Ribavirin + hydroxychloroquine] The effects of using ribavirin + hydroxychloroquine to treat COVID-19 hospitalized patients are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Hydroxychloroquine+Ribavirin vs Standard care. 2021.
   2022-01-0710/11Yes[Sofosbuvir/daclatasvir] Among hospitalized COVID-19 patients, using sofosbuvir/daclatasvir may produce little or no difference in the incidence of clinical improvement, and may not increase the adverse events; its effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Sofosbuvir/daclatasvir vs standard care. 2020.
   2021-12-157/11Yes[Sofosbuvir] Using sofosbuvir alone or in combination with daclatasvir, ledipasvir, velpatasvir, or ravidasvir may not have an effect on mortality or mechanical ventilation, whereas it probably does not affect time to symptom resolutionYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing living update of potential COVID-19 therapeutics: Summary of rapid systematic reviews. Rapid review - December 15th, 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2022-01-0710/11Yes[Sofosbuvir/ledipasvir] The effects of sofosbuvir/ledipasvir are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Sofosbuvir/ledipasvir vs Standard care. 2021.
   2021-12-157/11Yes[Tenofovir + emtricitabine] The effects of tenofovir + emtricitabine to treat COVID-19 patients are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing living update of potential COVID-19 therapeutics: Summary of rapid systematic reviews. Rapid review - December 15th, 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2022-01-0710/11Yes[Umifenovir] The effects of adding umifenovir to standard care are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsUmifenovir vs Standard Care. COVID NMA; 2020
   2022-01-0710/11Yes[Umifenovir vs favipiravir] See comparison under favipiravir vs umifenovirYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsFavipiravir vs Umifenovir. COVID NMA; 2020
   2022-01-0710/11Yes[Umifenovir vs lopinavir + ritonavir] See comparison under lopinavir + ritonavir vs umifenovirYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Lopinavir + Ritonavir vs Umifenovir. 2020.
   2020-07-055/9NoA systematic review on the cost-effectiveness of antiviral treatments for pandemics found no articles on COVID-19, but modelling studies showed that antivirals may be a cost-effective strategy either as a single intervention or as part of a multifaceted strategyNoFull reviewBenefits and harmsDawoud DM & Soliman KY. Cost-effectiveness of antiviral treatments for pandemics and outbreaks of respiratory illnesses, including COVID-19: A systematic review of published economic evaluations. Value in Health. 2020;23(11):1409-1422. 
  Other antimicrobials2021-09-0310/11Yes[Azithromycin] Azithromycin probably makes little or no difference on time to symptom resolution and time to viral clearance, while it may not reduce mortality or have an effect in other patient clinical outcomesYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsSiemieniuk R, Bartoszko JJ, Ge L, Zeraatkar D, Izcovich A, Kum E, et al. Update to living systematic review on drug treatments for covid-19. BMJ. 2021;370:m2980.
   2022-01-0710/11Yes[Azithromycin] In terms of mortality, azithromycin does not have an effect among hospitalized patients, and may not have an effect in mild outpatients; it probably does not have an effect on clinical improvement in hospitalized  patients and it probably increase the risk of adverse events in mild outpatientsYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Azithromycin vs Standard care. 2021.
   2021-07-307/11Yes[Azithromycin] Azithromycin probably does not reduce mortality and mechanical ventilation, and does not improve time to symptom resolution among COVID-19 patientsYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing living update of potential COVID-19 therapeutics: Summary of rapid systematic reviews. Rapid review - December 15th, 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2022-01-0710/11Yes[Azithromycin] The effects of adding azithromycin to hydroxychloroquine therapy in hospitalized patients are uncertain, and it may even slightly increase serious adverse events; it may not have an effect on viral negative conversion in mild outpatientsYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Hydroxychloroquine + Azithromycin vs Hydroxychloroquine. 2020.
   2022-01-0710/11Yes[Azithromycin + hydroxychloroquine] In hospitalized COVID-19 patients, azithromycin + hydroxychloroquine may not have an effect on clinical improvement and disease progression, while it may lead to an increase in adverse events; among mild outpatients, it may not have an effect on viral negative conversion and hospitalization or deathYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Hydroxychloroquine vs Azithromycin. 2020.
   2022-01-0710/11Yes[Chloroquine vs hydroxychloroquine] The effects of hydroxychloroquine compared to chloroquine are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Hydroxychloroquine vs Chloroquine. 2020.
   2022-01-0710/11Yes[Doxycycline + ivermectin] The effects of adding doxycycline + ivermectin to standard care are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Ivermectin+Doxycycline vs standard care. 2020.
   2021-12-157/11Yes[Doxycycline] Doxycycline does not increase symptom resolution and clinical improvement, and it may not reduce hospitalizationsYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing living update of potential COVID-19 therapeutics: Summary of rapid systematic reviews. Rapid review - December 15th, 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-09-0310/11Yes[Hydroxychloroquine] Hydroxychloroquine probably makes does have an effect on mortality and mechanical ventilation, and it may not have an important effect in other patient clinical outcomesYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsSiemieniuk R, Bartoszko JJ, Ge L, Zeraatkar D, Izcovich A, Kum E, et al. Update to living systematic review on drug treatments for covid-19. BMJ. 2021;370:m2980.
   2021-12-157/11Yes[Hydroxychloroquine] Using hydroxychloroquine probably has no effect on mortality, invasive mechanical ventilation and time to symptom resolution among COVID-19 patients, and some studies show an increase in mortalityYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing living update of potential COVID-19 therapeutics: Summary of rapid systematic reviews. Rapid review - December 15th, 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2022-01-0710/11Yes[Hydroxychloroquine] Hydroxychloroquine may not reduce mortality in mild and hospitalized patients, probably does not have an important effect on viral negative conversion (among mild outpatients), clinical improvement and disease progression (among hospitalized patients); it probably increases the risk of adverse events in hospitalized patientsYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Hydroxychloroquine vs standard care/placebo. 2021.
   2022-01-0710/11Yes[Hydroxychloroquine vs ivermectin] The benefits of using hydroxychloroquine or ivermectin in hospitalized COVID-19 patients are uncertain, and the risk of adverse events may be similarYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Ivermectin vs hydroxychloroquine. 2021.
   2022-01-0710/11Yes[Hydroxychloroquine + azithromycin] See comparison under azithromycin + hydroxychloroquineYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Hydroxychloroquine vs Azithromycin. 2020.
   2022-01-0710/11Yes[Hydroxychloroquine vs lopinavir + ritonavir] See comparison under anti-virals/lopinavir + ritonavir vs hydroxychloroquineYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Lopinavir-Ritonavir vs Hydroxychloroquine. 2021.
   2022-01-0710/11Yes[Hydroxychloroquine + ribavirin] See comparison under anti-virals/ribavirin + hydroxychloroquineYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Hydroxychloroquine+Ribavirin vs Standard care. 2021.
   2022-01-0710/11Yes[Ivermectin] In mild outpatients or hospitalized patients, adding ivermectin to standard care may have no effect on mortality at 28 days, clinical improvement and disease progression; it may not increase the risk of serious adverse events and probably does not increase the risk of any adverse eventYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Ivermectin vs standard care/placebo. 2020.
   2021-09-0310/11Yes[Ivermectin] Ivermectin probably makes little or no difference in time to viral clearance, and it may not have an effect on length of hospital stay and time to symptom resolution; its effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsSiemieniuk R, Bartoszko JJ, Ge L, Zeraatkar D, Izcovich A, Kum E, et al. Update to living systematic review on drug treatments for covid-19. BMJ. 2021;370:m2980.
   2021-12-157/11Yes[Ivermectin] Among hospitalized COVID-19 patients, ivermectin may not reduce mortality and mechanical ventilation, while it probably does not improve time to symptom resolution; among non-severe patients, it may reduce hospitalizationsYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing living update of potential COVID-19 therapeutics: Summary of rapid systematic reviews. Rapid review - December 15th, 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-05-2611/11Yes[Ivermectin] Ivermectin may have little or no benefit in clinical improvement and duration of hospitalization among moderate to severe COVID-19 patients, whereas it may have little or no benefit in symptom resolution among COVID-19 outpatients; its effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsPopp M, Stegemann M, Metzendorf MI, Gould S, Kranke P, Meybohm P. Ivermectin for preventing and treating COVID-19. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2021;(7):CD015017.
   2022-01-0710/11Yes[Ivermectin + doxycycline] See comparison under doxycycline + ivermectinYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Ivermectin+Doxycycline vs standard care. 2020.
   2022-01-0710/11Yes[Ivermectin vs hydroxychloroquine] See comparison under hydroxychloroquine vs ivermectinYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Ivermectin vs hydroxychloroquine. 2021.
   2021-12-157/11Yes[Niclosamide] The effects of using niclosamide to treat COVID-19 are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing living update of potential COVID-19 therapeutics: Summary of rapid systematic reviews. Rapid review - December 15th, 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2022-01-0710/11Yes[Nitazoxanide] In mild outpatients and hospitalized patients with COVID-19, nitazoxanide may not have an effect on clinical improvement; its effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Nitazoxanide vs placebo. 2020.
  Anti-inflammatories2022-01-0710/11Yes[Colchicine] In hospitalized patients, colchicine may reduce mortality at 28 days, it probably makes little or no difference in clinical improvement, and it probably reduce disease progression; it may slightly increase any adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Colchicine vs Standard Care. 2020.
   2021-09-0310/11Yes[Colchicine] Colchicine may not reduce mortality and mechanical ventilation, and it may not have an effect in other patient clinical outcomesYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsSiemieniuk R, Bartoszko JJ, Ge L, Zeraatkar D, Izcovich A, Kum E, et al. Update to living systematic review on drug treatments for covid-19. BMJ. 2021;370:m2980.
   2021-12-157/11Yes[Colchicine] Using colchicine in recently diagnosed COVID-19 patients probably does not reduce mortality, mechanical ventilation and time to symptom resolutionYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing living update of potential COVID-19 therapeutics: Summary of rapid systematic reviews. Rapid review - December 15th, 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-12-157/11Yes[Colchicine + rosuvastatin] The effects of colchicine + rosuvastatin to treat COVID-19 patients are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing living update of potential COVID-19 therapeutics: Summary of rapid systematic reviews. Rapid review - December 15th, 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-12-157/11Yes[Indomethacin] The effects of indomethacin to treat COVID-19 patients are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing living update of potential COVID-19 therapeutics: Summary of rapid systematic reviews. Rapid review - December 15th, 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   N/A (Protocol)n/aNo[Protocol - results not yet available] A systematic review on the effectiveness of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs  is currently being conductedYes (row content last checked on 2021-08-30)ProtocolBenefits and harmsUrrea G, Meza N, Vargas M, Ortiz L, Rada G, Madrid E. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs in Patients with COVID-19: a Living Systematic Review Protocol. PROSPERO 2020; CRD42020179594.
  Kinase inhibitors2020-12-305/9No[Acalabrutinib] The effects of using BTK inhibitors (including acalabrutinib) for severe COVID-19 are currently uncertain [Review of mainly observational studies of low to moderate quality]NoFull reviewBenefits and harmsStack M, Sacco K, Castagnoli R, Livinski AA, Notarangelo LD, Lionakis MS. BTK inhibitors for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2): A systematic review. Research Square. 2021.
   2021-09-0310/11Yes[Baricitinib] JAK inhibitors may reduce mortality, mechanical ventilation and duration of hospitalization, and they probably reduce the duration of mechanical ventilationYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsSiemieniuk R, Bartoszko JJ, Ge L, Zeraatkar D, Izcovich A, Kum E, et al. Update to living systematic review on drug treatments for covid-19. BMJ. 2021;370:m2980.
   2021-12-157/11Yes[Baricitinib] Using baricitinib in patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 disease probably reduces mortality and time to symptom resolution, and it probably does not increase severe adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing living update of potential COVID-19 therapeutics: Summary of rapid systematic reviews. Rapid review - December 15th, 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2022-01-0710/11Yes[Baricitinib] Among hospitalized COVID-19 patients, using baricitinib probably reduces mortality at 28 days, and it may also reduce mortality at 60 days; it probably makes little or no difference in clinical improvement, it may slightly reduce disease progression, and it may not increase serious adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Baricitinib vs Placebo. 2021.
   2020-12-305/9No[Ibrutinib] The effects of using BTK inhibitors (including ibrutinib) for severe COVID-19 are currently uncertain [Review of mainly observational studies of low to moderate quality]NoFull reviewBenefits and harmsStack M, Sacco K, Castagnoli R, Livinski AA, Notarangelo LD, Lionakis MS. BTK inhibitors for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2): A systematic review. Research Square. 2021.
   2021-12-157/11Yes[Imatinib] The effects of using imatinib to treat COVID-19 are uncertain Yes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing living update of potential COVID-19 therapeutics: Summary of rapid systematic reviews. Rapid review - December 15th, 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2022-01-0710/11Yes[CIGB-325] The effects of using CIGB-325 are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. CIGB-325 vs standard care. 2020.
   2021-12-157/11Yes[Opaganib] The effects of using opaganib to treat COVID-19 patients are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing living update of potential COVID-19 therapeutics: Summary of rapid systematic reviews. Rapid review - December 15th, 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2022-01-0710/11No[Ruxolitinib vs vitamin C] The effects of ruxolitinib compared with vitamin C are uncertain, although further research is warranted since one very small study appeared to demonstrate a benefit for ruxolitinib for the outcomes of mortality and clinical improvementYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsRuxolitinib vs Vitamin C. COVID NMA; 2020.
   2021-09-0310/11Yes[Ruxolitinib] JAK inhibitors may reduce mortality, mechanical ventilation and duration of hospitalization, and they probably reduce the duration of mechanical ventilationYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsSiemieniuk R, Bartoszko JJ, Ge L, Zeraatkar D, Izcovich A, Kum E, et al. Update to living systematic review on drug treatments for covid-19. BMJ. 2021;370:m2980.
   2021-12-157/11Yes[Ruxolitinib] Ruxolitinib may not improve time to symptom resolution, and its effects on other outcomes are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing living update of potential COVID-19 therapeutics: Summary of rapid systematic reviews. Rapid review - December 15th, 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-12-157/11Yes[Tofacitinib] Tofacitinib may increase symptom resolution or improvement, while it may increase severe adverse events in hospitalized and severe COVID-19 patientsYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing living update of potential COVID-19 therapeutics: Summary of rapid systematic reviews. Rapid review - December 15th, 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
  Corticosteroids2022-01-0710/11Yes[Budesonide] Budesonide may reduce hospitalization or death among mild COVID-19 outpatients; its effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Budesonide vs standard care. 2021.
   2022-01-0710/11Yes[Corticosteroids] Adding corticosteroids to standard care slightly reduces mortality and it may reduce disease progression; its effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Corticosteroids vs standard care/placebo. 2021.
   2021-09-0310/11Yes[Corticosteroids] Corticosteroids probably reduce mortality and it probably increase ventilator-free days in COVID-19 patients; it may also reduce mechanical ventilation and the duration of mechanical ventilationYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsSiemieniuk R, Bartoszko JJ, Ge L, Zeraatkar D, Izcovich A, Kum E, et al. Update to living systematic review on drug treatments for covid-19. BMJ. 2021;370:m2980.
   2021-12-157/11Yes[Corticosteroids] Low- or moderate-dose treatment with corticosteroids probably reduces mortality in severe COVID-19 patients, while higher-doses are probably more effectiveYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing living update of potential COVID-19 therapeutics: Summary of rapid systematic reviews. Rapid review - December 15th, 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-04-1611/11Yes[Corticosteroids] Using corticosteroids probably reduces mortality slightly and may increase ventilator-free days; the effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsWagner C, Griesel M, Mikolajewska A, Mueller A, Nothacker M, Kley K, et al. Systemic corticosteroids for the treatment of COVID-19. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2021;(8):CD014963.
   2021-12-157/11Yes[Inhaled corticosteroids] Using inhaled corticosteroids probably improve time to symptom resolution, but their effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing living update of potential COVID-19 therapeutics: Summary of rapid systematic reviews. Rapid review - December 15th, 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-12-157/11Yes[AMP5A] The effects of using AMP5A to treat COVID-19 patients are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing living update of potential COVID-19 therapeutics: Summary of rapid systematic reviews. Rapid review - December 15th, 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
  Biologics2020-06-2010/11Yes[Anakinra] The effects of using anakinra are uncertainNoFull reviewBenefits and harmsKim MS, An MH, Kim WJ, Hwang TH. Comparative efficacy and safety of pharmacological interventions for the treatment of COVID-19: A systematic review and network meta-analysis. PLOS Medicine. 2020;17(12):e1003501.
   2021-01-079/11Yes[Anakinra] The effects of anakinra for COVID-19 patients are uncertainNoFull reviewBenefits and harmsKhan F, Stewart I, Fabbri L, Moss S, Robinson K, Smyth AR, et al. A systematic review of Anakinra, Sarilumab, Siltuximab with meta-analysis of Tocilizumab for Covid-19. Thorax. 2020. 
   2021-12-157/11Yes[Anakinra] The effects of anakinra for COVID-19 patients are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing living update of potential COVID-19 therapeutics: Summary of rapid systematic reviews. Rapid review - December 15th, 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2022-01-0710/11Yes[Anakinra] In hospitalized COVID-19 patients, anakinra may have little or no difference in mortality while it slightly reduce disease progression; it probably slightly increase clinical improvement and it probably does not increase the adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Anakinra vs standard care. 2021.
   2021-05-136/9Yes[APN01] The effects of APN01 cannot yet be assessed; upcoming studies are expected to be published soonYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsEUnetHTA Rolling Collaborative Review (RCR09) Authoring Team. APN01 for the treatment of COVID- 19. Diemen (The Netherlands): EUnetHTA; 2020.
   2022-01-0710/11Yes[Bamlanivimab] In hospitalized COVID-19 patients, bamlanivimab may make little or no difference in mortality clinical improvement, and disease progression; it may not increase the risk of serious adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Bamlanivimab (LY-CoV555) vs Placebo. 2020.
   2021-12-157/11Yes[Bamlanivimab] Using bamlanivimab probably decreases hospitalizations in patients with COVID-19, and its effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing living update of potential COVID-19 therapeutics: Summary of rapid systematic reviews. Rapid review - December 15th, 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-06-1711/11Yes[Bamlanivimab] Bamlanivimab may decrease hospital admissions and may not increase adverse events among non-hospitalized COVID-19 patients; in hospitalized patients, it may not have an effect on duration of hospitalization and its effects on mortality are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsKreuzberger N, Hirsch C, Chai KL, Piechotta V, Valk SJ, Estcourt LJ, et al. SARS‐CoV‐2‐neutralising monoclonal antibodies for treatment of COVID‐19. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2021. 
   2021-07-2111/11Yes[Bamlanivimab] Bamlanivimab may reduce the risk of hospitalization, but does not appear to have an impact on mortality among severe patients, whereas its safety outcomes are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsSiemieniuk RA, Bartoszko JJ, Díaz Martinez JP, Kum E, Qasim A, Zeraatkar D, et al. Antibody and cellular therapies for treatment of covid-19: A living systematic review and network meta-analysis. BMJ. 2021;374:n2231.
   2022-01-0710/11Yes[Bamlanivimab + etesevimab] In mild outpatients, bamlanivimab + etesevimab may increase clinical improvement and viral negative conversion, while it may reduce the risk of hospitalization or deathYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. LY-CoV555+LY-CoV016 vs placebo. 2021.
   2021-07-307/11Yes[Bamlanivimab + etesevimab] Bamlanivimab + etesevimab probably reduces hospitalizations in patients with COVID-19, while its effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing living update of potential COVID-19 therapeutics: Summary of rapid systematic reviews. Rapid review - December 15th, 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-06-1711/11Yes[Bamlanivimab + etesevimab] Among non-hospitalized COVID-19 patients, bamlanivimab + etesevimab may decrease mortality and hospital admissions; its effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsKreuzberger N, Hirsch C, Chai KL, Piechotta V, Valk SJ, Estcourt LJ, et al. SARS‐CoV‐2‐neutralising monoclonal antibodies for treatment of COVID‐19. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2021. 
   2021-07-2111/11Yes[Bamlanivimab + etesevimab] Bamlanivimab + etesevimab may reduce the risk of hospitalization, but does not appear to have an impact on mortality among severe patients, whereas its safety outcomes are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsSiemieniuk RA, Bartoszko JJ, Díaz Martinez JP, Kum E, Qasim A, Zeraatkar D, et al. Antibody and cellular therapies for treatment of covid-19: A living systematic review and network meta-analysis. BMJ. 2021;374:n2231.
   2021-12-157/11Yes[RBD-specific polyclonal F(ab')2 fragments of equine antibodies] The effects of using INM005 in COVID-19 patients are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing living update of potential COVID-19 therapeutics: Summary of rapid systematic reviews. Rapid review - December 15th, 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-12-157/11Yes[Canakinumab] The effects of canakinumab to treat COVID-19 patients is currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing living update of potential COVID-19 therapeutics: Summary of rapid systematic reviews. Rapid review - December 15th, 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2022-01-0710/11Yes[Canakinumab] Among patients hospitalized with COVID-19, canakinumab may slightly reduce mortality and disease progression, while it probably slightly increases clinical improvement; it may not increase the risk of severe adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Canakinumab vs Placebo. 2021.
   2022-01-0710/11Yes[Etesevimab] Compared to bamlanivimab (LY-CoV555) alone, adding etesevimab (LY-CoV016) to bamlanivimab may have slight benefits for clinical improvement and may have less adverse events; the effects on other outcomes are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. LY-CoV555 vs LY-CoV555+LY-CoV016. 2021.
   2022-01-0710/11Yes[Interferon alpha-2b] The effects of using interferon alpha-2b in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Interferon alpha2b vs Standard care. 2021.
   2022-01-0710/11Yes[Inferferon β-1a] The effects of using interferon β-1a to treat COVID-19 patients are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Interferon β vs standard care/placebo. 2020.
   2021-12-157/11Yes[Interferon β-1a] Using interferon β-1a probably has no effect on mortality and invasive ventilation, whereas inhaled interferon β-1a may improve time to symptom resolutionYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing living update of potential COVID-19 therapeutics: Summary of rapid systematic reviews. Rapid review - December 15th, 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2022-01-0710/11Yes[Interferon β-1b + rivabirin] See comparison under anti-virals/ribavirin +interferon-b-1b + lopinavir + ritonavir vs lopinavir + ritonavirYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsLopinavir + Ritonavir + Ribavirin + Interferon-b-1b vs Lopinavir + Ritonavir. COVID NMA; 2020
   2021-09-0310/11Yes[Interferon β-1b] Interferon β-1b may not reduce mortality and mechanical ventilation, and it may not have an effect in other patient clinical outcomesYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsSiemieniuk R, Bartoszko JJ, Ge L, Zeraatkar D, Izcovich A, Kum E, et al. Update to living systematic review on drug treatments for covid-19. BMJ. 2021;370:m2980.
   2022-01-0710/11Yes[Interferon gamma] The effects of adding interferon gamma to a interferon α-2b  therapy are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Interferon α-2b + Interferon gamma+ vs Interferon α-2b. 2020.
   2022-01-0710/11Yes[Itolizumab] The effects of adding itolizumab to standard care are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Itolizumab vs standard care. 2020.
   2021-05-106/9Yes[Gimsilumab] The effects of gimsilumab cannot yet be assessed; upcoming studies are expected to be published soonYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsEUnetHTA Rolling Collaborative Review (RCR14) Authoring Team. Gimsilumab for the treatment of COVID-19. Diemen (The Netherlands): EUnetHTA; 2021.
   2021-12-157/11Yes[Lenzilumab] Using lenzilumab may reduce mortality and invasive ventilation rates in severe COVID-19 patientsYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing living update of potential COVID-19 therapeutics: Summary of rapid systematic reviews. Rapid review - December 15th, 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-12-157/11Yes[Levilimab] Levilimab may improve time to symptom resolution in COVID-19 patients, and its effects on other outcomes are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing living update of potential COVID-19 therapeutics: Summary of rapid systematic reviews. Rapid review - December 15th, 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-05-036/9Yes[Mavrilimumab] The effects of mavrilimumab to treat COVID-19 patients are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsEUnetHTA Rolling Collaborative Review (RCR21). Authoring Team. Mavrilimumab for the treatment of COVID-19. Diemen (The Netherlands): EUnetHTA; 2021.
   2020-07-017/11No[Meplazumab] One systematic review comparing several immunomodulatory agents for managing COVID-19 infection concluded that meplazumab is probably not  beneficialNoFull reviewBenefits and harmsTalaie H, Hosseini SM, Nazari M, et al. Is there any potential management against COVID-19? A systematic review and meta-analysis [published online ahead of print, 2020 Aug 18]. Daru. 2020;1-13. doi:10.1007/s40199-020-00367-4
   2022-01-0710/11No[Novaferon] The effects of adding novaferon to lopinavir + ritonavir are uncertain although one small study found a benefit for novaferon and lopinavir +ritonavir for increasing viral clearanceYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsNovaferon + Lopinavir + Ritonavir vs Lopinavir + Ritonavir. COVID NMA; 2020
   2022-01-0710/11No[Novaferon vs lopinavir + ritonavir] See comparison under anti-virals/lopinavir + ritonavir vs novaferonYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsNovaferon vs Lopinavir + Ritonavir. COVID NMA; 2020.
   2022-01-0710/11Yes[Peginterferon lambda-1] The benefnits of using peginterferon lamda-1 in mild COVID-19 outpatients are currently uncertain, while it may not increase serious adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Peginterferon Lambda-1 vs placebo. 2020.
   2022-01-0710/11Yes[Recombinant super-compound interferon(RSIFN-co)] The effects of RSIFN-co compared to IFN-alpha are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. rSIFN-co vs IFN-alpha. 2020.
   2021-12-157/11Yes[Regdanvimab] Using regdanvimab may improve time to symptom resolution, but its effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing living update of potential COVID-19 therapeutics: Summary of rapid systematic reviews. Rapid review - December 15th, 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-06-1711/11Yes[Regdanvimab] Among non-hospitalized COVID-19 patients, regdanvimab may reduce a combined measure that includes both hospital admissions (which is the more common of the two outcomes) and death (while having no direct effect on mortality alone), and it may increase the risk of serious adverse events; its effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsKreuzberger N, Hirsch C, Chai KL, Piechotta V, Valk SJ, Estcourt LJ, et al. SARS‐CoV‐2‐neutralising monoclonal antibodies for treatment of COVID‐19. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2021. 
   2021-12-157/11Yes[REGEN-COV] REGEN-COV (casirivimab and imdevimab) may reduce mortality and mechanical ventilation, while it may improve time to symptom resolution among COVID-19 patients with severe to critical disease; in patients with mild recent COVID-19 onset, it probably reduces hospitalizations and probably improve time to symptom resolution, without increasing severe adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing living update of potential COVID-19 therapeutics: Summary of rapid systematic reviews. Rapid review - December 15th, 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-06-1711/11Yes[REGEN-COV (casirivimab and imdevimab)] Casirimab + imdevimab may substantially reduce a combined measure that includes both hospital admissions (which is the more common of the two outcomes) and death (while having no direct effect on mortality alone), while its safety and effects on other outcomes are uncertain among non-hospitalized COVID-19 patients; in hospitalized patients, it probably has little to no effect on mortality, clinical progressions and duration of hospitalizationYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsKreuzberger N, Hirsch C, Chai KL, Piechotta V, Valk SJ, Estcourt LJ, et al. SARS‐CoV‐2‐neutralising monoclonal antibodies for treatment of COVID‐19. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2021. 
   2021-07-2111/11Yes[REGEN-COV] REGEN-COV (casirimab + imdevimab) may reduce the risk of mortality in severe COVID-19 patients with detectable antibodies to SARS-CoV-2, but does not appear to have an impact on mortality among severe patients; it probably reduces the risk of hospitalization, whereas its safety outcomes are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsSiemieniuk RA, Bartoszko JJ, Díaz Martinez JP, Kum E, Qasim A, Zeraatkar D, et al. Antibody and cellular therapies for treatment of covid-19: A living systematic review and network meta-analysis. BMJ. 2021;374:n2231.
   2022-01-0710/11Yes[REGEN-COV] REGEN-COV (casirimab + imdevimab) may not increase serious adverse events, while its effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. REGN-COV2 vs placebo. 2020.
   2022-01-0710/11Yes[Sarilumab] Using sarilumab for hospitalized COVID-19 patients may slightly reduce mortality ay 28 days, it may make little or no difference in clinical improvement and may not have an effect on disease progression; it may also slightly increase adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Sarilumab vs standard care. 2020.
   2021-01-079/11Yes[Sarilumab] The effects of sarilumab for COVID-19 patients are uncertainNoFull reviewBenefits and harmsKhan F, Stewart I, Fabbri L, Moss S, Robinson K, Smyth AR, et al. A systematic review of Anakinra, Sarilumab, Siltuximab with meta-analysis of Tocilizumab for Covid-19. Thorax. 2020. 
   2021-09-0310/11Yes[Sarilumab] Interleukin-6 inhibitors probably makes little or no difference on mortality and ICU length of stay,  while they probably reduce mechanical ventilation; they may not increase adverse events and may  slightly reduce hospitalization lengthYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsSiemieniuk R, Bartoszko JJ, Ge L, Zeraatkar D, Izcovich A, Kum E, et al. Update to living systematic review on drug treatments for covid-19. BMJ. 2021;370:m2980.
   2021-02-269/11Yes[Sarilumab] Compared to standard care, sarilumab may make little or no difference in mortality, and time to clinical improvement, while probably does not increase adverse events in severe and critical patientsYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsGhosn L, Chaimani A, Evrenoglou T,  Davidson M, Graña C, Schmucker C, et al. Interleukin‐6 blocking agents for treating COVID‐19: A living systematic review. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2021. 
   2021-12-157/11Yes[Sarilumab] Sarilumab may not reduce mortality and it probably does not improve time to symptom resolution, while it may reduce mechanical ventilation requirements without increasing severe adverse events in patients with severe COVID-19 diseaseYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing living update of potential COVID-19 therapeutics: Summary of rapid systematic reviews. Rapid review - December 15th, 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-12-157/11Yes[Secukinumab] The effects of using secukinumab to treat COVID-19 patients are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing living update of potential COVID-19 therapeutics: Summary of rapid systematic reviews. Rapid review - December 15th, 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-01-079/11Yes[Siltuximab] The effects of siltuximab for COVID-19 patients are uncertainNoFull reviewBenefits and harmsKhan F, Stewart I, Fabbri L, Moss S, Robinson K, Smyth AR, et al. A systematic review of Anakinra, Sarilumab, Siltuximab with meta-analysis of Tocilizumab for Covid-19. Thorax. 2020. 
   2021-12-157/11Yes[Siltuximab] The effects of siltuximab for COVID-19 patients are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing living update of potential COVID-19 therapeutics: Summary of rapid systematic reviews. Rapid review - December 15th, 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-09-0310/11Yes[Siltuximab] Interleukin-6 inhibitors probably makes little or no difference on mortality and ICU length of stay, while they probably reduce mechanical ventilation; they may not increase adverse events and may slightly reduce hospitalization lengthYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsSiemieniuk R, Bartoszko JJ, Ge L, Zeraatkar D, Izcovich A, Kum E, et al. Update to living systematic review on drug treatments for covid-19. BMJ. 2021;370:m2980.
   2021-09-0310/11Yes[Tocilizumab] Interleukin-6 inhibitors probably makes little or no difference on mortality and ICU length of stay, while they probably reduce mechanical ventilation; they may not increase adverse events and may slightly reduce hospitalization lengthYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsSiemieniuk R, Bartoszko JJ, Ge L, Zeraatkar D, Izcovich A, Kum E, et al. Update to living systematic review on drug treatments for covid-19. BMJ. 2021;370:m2980.
   2022-01-0710/11Yes[Tocilizumab] Among hospitalized patients, tocilizumab slightly reduces mortality at 28 days and may also slightly reduce mortality at 60 days; it probably slightly increases the incidence of clinical improvement and it may slightly increase adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Tocilizumab vs standard care/placebo. 2021.
   2021-12-157/11Yes[Sotrovimab] In patients with mild COVID-19 patients, sotrovimab probably reduces hospitalization and improves time to symptom resolution without increasing severe adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing living update of potential COVID-19 therapeutics: Summary of rapid systematic reviews. Rapid review - December 15th, 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-06-1711/11Yes[Sotrovimab] Among non-hospitalized COVID-19 patients, sotrovimab may substantially reduce oxygen requirement and a combined measure that includes both hospital admissions (which is the more common of the two outcomes) and death (while having no direct effect on mortality alone), while it may not increase serious adverse events; its effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsKreuzberger N, Hirsch C, Chai KL, Piechotta V, Valk SJ, Estcourt LJ, et al. SARS‐CoV‐2‐neutralising monoclonal antibodies for treatment of COVID‐19. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2021. 
   2021-07-2111/11Yes[Sotrovimab] Sotrovimab may reduce the risk of hospitalization, but does not appear to have an impact on mortality among severe patients, whereas its safety outcomes are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsSiemieniuk RA, Bartoszko JJ, Díaz Martinez JP, Kum E, Qasim A, Zeraatkar D, et al. Antibody and cellular therapies for treatment of covid-19: A living systematic review and network meta-analysis. BMJ. 2021;374:n2231.
   2021-12-157/11Yes[Tocilizumab] Using tocilizumab in patients with severe COVID-19 disease  reduces mortality and the need for mechanical ventilation, whereas it does not importantly increase severe adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing living update of potential COVID-19 therapeutics: Summary of rapid systematic reviews. Rapid review - December 15th, 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-02-049/11No[Tocilizumab] Tocilizumab reduces the risk of mechanical ventilation, probably reduces the risk of secondary infections in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, and has uncertain effects on mortalityYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsTleyjeh IM, Kashour Z, Riaz M, Hassett L, Veiga VC, Kashour T. Efficacy and safety of tocilizumab in COVID-19 patients: A living systematic review and meta-analysis: First update. Clinical Microbiology and Infection. 2021. Epub ahead of print.
   2021-02-269/11Yes[Tocilizumab] Compared to standard care, tocilizumab slightly reduces 28-day mortality, may not have an effect on 60-day mortality, probably may slightly increase clinical improvement and it probably does not increase serious adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsGhosn L, Chaimani A, Evrenoglou T,  Davidson M, Graña C, Schmucker C, et al. Interleukin‐6 blocking agents for treating COVID‐19: A living systematic review. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2021. 
  Others2022-01-0710/11Yes[a-Lipoic acid] It is uncertain whether a-Lipoic acid has any differential effects compared with placebo due to very low certainty evidenceYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsa-Lipoic Acid vs Placebo. COVID NMA; 2020
   2020-07-316/6Yes[ACE inhibitors and ARB] No evidence was found evaluating the effects of using angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers for COVID-19 treatmentYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsMeza N, Pérez-Bracchiglione J, Pérez I, Carvajal C, Ortiz-Muñoz L, Olguín P, et al. Angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers for COVID-19: A living systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Medwave. 2021;21(2):e8105.
   2022-01-0710/11Yes[Aspirin] Among hospitalized patients, aspirin may slightly reduce mortality and makes little or no difference in clinical improvementYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Aspirin vs Standard care. 2021.
   2021-04-168/11Yes[Aspirin] Active prescription of low-dose aspirin may reduce mortality among COVID-19 patients during or prior to hospitalizationNoFull reviewBenefits and harmsMartha JW, Pranata R, Lim MA, Wibowo A, Akbar MR. Active prescription of low-dose aspirin during or prior to hospitalization and mortality in COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis of adjusted effect estimates. Int J Infect Dis. 2021;108:6-12. 
   2021-12-157/11Yes[Aspirin] Among COVID-19 patients, aspirin probably does not have an effect on mortality or mechanical ventilation, and it probably does not increase symptom resolution or clinical improvementYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing living update of COVID-19 therapeutic options: Summary of evidence. Rapid review, 12 November 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-12-157/11Yes[Beta-glucans] The effects of using beta-glucans to treat COVID-19 patients are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing living update of potential COVID-19 therapeutics: Summary of rapid systematic reviews. Rapid review - December 15th, 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2022-01-0710/11Yes[Bromhexine] The effects of bromhexine are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Bromhexine vs standard care. 2020.
   2021-12-157/11Yes[Calcitriol] The effects of using calcitriol to treat COVID-19 patients are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing living update of potential COVID-19 therapeutics: Summary of rapid systematic reviews. Rapid review - December 15th, 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-05-116/9No[Camostat] Although several trials are ongoing, the only one that has been finished shows no benefit of camostat among hospitalized patientsYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsEUnetHTA Rolling Collaborative Review (RCR04). Authoring Team. Camostat for the treatment of Covid-19. Diemen (The Netherlands): EUnetHTA; 2021.
   2021-12-157/11Yes[Canabidiol] The effects of using cannabidiol to treat COVID-19 patients are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing living update of potential COVID-19 therapeutics: Summary of rapid systematic reviews. Rapid review - December 15th, 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2020-04-235/6Yes[Cell-based therapies] No evidence was found on the effects of cell-based therapies for COVID-19Yes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsRada G, Corbalan J, Rojas P. Cell-based therapies for COVID-19: A living systematic review. Medwave. 2020;20(11):e8079.
   2022-01-0710/11Yes[Colony-stimulating factor] Adding recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor to standard care may reduce mortality and increase adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor vs standard care. 2020.
   2022-01-0710/11Yes[C1 esterase inhibitor] The effects of adding C1 esterase/kallikrein inhibitor to standard care are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. C1 Esterase/Kallikrein inhibitor vs standard care. 2020.
   2021-12-157/11Yes[Dapagliflozin] In hospitalized COVID-19 patients with cardiometabolic risk factors, dapagliflozin may reduce mortality, but probably does not improve symptom resolutionYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing living update of potential COVID-19 therapeutics: Summary of rapid systematic reviews. Rapid review - December 15th, 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-12-157/11Yes[Dimethyl sulfoxide (DSMO)] The effects of using DSMO to treat COVID-19 patients are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing living update of potential COVID-19 therapeutics: Summary of rapid systematic reviews. Rapid review - December 15th, 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-11-1210/11 Compared to therapeutic anticoagulants, using prophylactic anticoagulants may make little or no difference in mortality, and probably does not have an effect on clinical improvement    
   2020-09-208/11Yes[Famotidine] The effects of famotidine for COVID-19 patients are uncertainNoFull reviewBenefits and harmsSethia R, Prasad M, Jagannath S, Nischal N, Soneja M, Garg P, et al. Efficacy of Famotidine for COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. medRxiv. 2020.
   2021-12-157/11Yes[Famotidine] The effects of famotidine for COVID-19 patients are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing living update of potential COVID-19 therapeutics: Summary of rapid systematic reviews. Rapid review - December 15th, 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-12-157/11Yes[Fluvoxamine] Among COVID-19 patients with mild disease, fluvoxamine probably reduces hospitalizations and it may not increase adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing living update of potential COVID-19 therapeutics: Summary of rapid systematic reviews. Rapid review - December 15th, 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-12-157/11Yes[Hesperidin] Hesperidin may not have an effect on symptom resolution among COVID-19 patients, and its effects on other outcomes are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing living update of potential COVID-19 therapeutics: Summary of rapid systematic reviews. Rapid review - December 15th, 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-12-157/11Yes[Lactoferrin] The effects of using lactoferrin to treat COVID-19 patients are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing living update of potential COVID-19 therapeutics: Summary of rapid systematic reviews. Rapid review - December 15th, 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-12-157/11Yes[Levamizole] The effects of using levamizole to treat COVID-19 patients are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing living update of potential COVID-19 therapeutics: Summary of rapid systematic reviews. Rapid review - December 15th, 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2022-01-0710/11Yes[Losartan] Among hospitalized COVID-19 patients, losartan may not increase clinical improvement at 28 days; its effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Losartan vs Standard care/Placebo. 2021
   2021-12-157/11Yes[Hypertonic saline] The effects of using a nasal hypertonic saline are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing living update of potential COVID-19 therapeutics: Summary of rapid systematic reviews. Rapid review - December 15th, 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-12-157/11Yes[Melatonin] The effects of using melatonin to treat COVID-19 patients are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing living update of potential COVID-19 therapeutics: Summary of rapid systematic reviews. Rapid review - December 15th, 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-12-157/11Yes[Nafamostat] The effects of nafamostat mesylate to treat COVID-19 patients are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing living update of potential COVID-19 therapeutics: Summary of rapid systematic reviews. Rapid review - December 15th, 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2022-01-0710/11Yes[Oxygen-ozone] The effects of adding oxygen-ozone therapy to standard care are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Oxygen-ozone vs standard care. 2020.
   2021-12-157/11Yes[Prostacycline] The effects of using prostacycline to treat COVID-19 patients are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing living update of potential COVID-19 therapeutics: Summary of rapid systematic reviews. Rapid review - December 15th, 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-12-157/11Yes[Proxalutamide] Using proxalutamide may reduce mortality, mechanical ventilation, and may improve time to symptom resolution in COVID-19 patientsYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing living update of COVID-19 therapeutic options: Summary of evidence. Rapid review, 12 November 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-12-157/11Yes[Quercetin] The effects of using quercetin to treat COVID-19 patients are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing living update of COVID-19 therapeutic options: Summary of evidence. Rapid review, 12 November 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-12-157/11Yes[Sitagliptin] The effects of using sitagliptin to treat COVID-19 patients are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing living update of COVID-19 therapeutic options: Summary of evidence. Rapid review, 12 November 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-05-116/9Yes[Solnative] The effects of solnatide cannot yet be assessed; upcoming studies are expected to be published soonYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsEUnetHTA Rolling Collaborative Review (RCR06) Authoring Team. Solnatide for the treatment of COVID-19. Diemen (The Netherlands): EUnetHTA; 2021
   2021-12-157/11Yes[Spironolactone] The effects of using spironolactone to treat COVID-19 patients are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing living update of potential COVID-19 therapeutics: Summary of rapid systematic reviews. Rapid review - December 15th, 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2020-07-277/10No[Statins] Statins have shown to reduce fatal or severe disease in COVID-19 patients [Review of observational studies of unclear quality]NoFull reviewBenefits and harmsKow CS & Hasan SS. Meta-analysis of effect of statins in patients with COVID-19. The American Journal of Cardiology. 2020.
   2022-01-0710/11Yes[Stem cells] In hospitalized patients, human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell infusion may slightly increase the incidence of clinical improvement, and it may not increase adverse events; its effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell infusion vs standard care/placebo. 2020.
   2022-01-0710/11Yes[Vitamin C] The effects of using vitamin C in hospitalized COVID-19 patients are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Vitamin C vs standard of care/placebo. 2020.
   2021-09-0310/11Yes[Vitamin C] Vitamin C may make little or no difference on length of hospital stay, while its effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsSiemieniuk R, Bartoszko JJ, Ge L, Zeraatkar D, Izcovich A, Kum E, et al. Update to living systematic review on drug treatments for covid-19. BMJ. 2021;370:m2980.
   2022-01-0710/11Yes[Vitamin D] The effects of using vitamin D are uncertain and it may increase adverse eventsYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Vitamin D vs standard care/placebo. 2020.
   2021-09-0310/11Yes[Vitamin D] Vitamin D probably does not have an effect on duration of hospitalization while it may reduce mechanical ventilation; its effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsSiemieniuk R, Bartoszko JJ, Ge L, Zeraatkar D, Izcovich A, Kum E, et al. Update to living systematic review on drug treatments for covid-19. BMJ. 2021;370:m2980.
   2021-03-119/10Yes[Vitamin D] Vitamin D may reduce the need for invasive mechanical ventilation in moderate to severe patients; its effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsStroehlein JK, Wallqvist J, Iannizzi C, Mikolajewska A, Metzendorf MI, Benstoem C, et al. Vitamin D supplementation for the treatment of COVID-19: A living systematic review. Cochrane Database of Systematic Rev.iews 2021;5:CD015043. 
   2021-05-057/9Yes[Vitamin D] High-dose vitamin D may not have an effect on mortality, whereas it probably reduces the rate of ICU admission and it may reduce the rate of mechanical ventilationYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsEUnetHTA Rolling Collaborative Review (RCR20) Authoring Team. High-Dose Vitamin D for the treatment of COVID-19. Diemen (The Netherlands): EUnetHTA; 2021.
   2022-01-0710/11Yes[Zinc] The effects of using zinc in hospitalized COVID-19 patients are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Zinc vs standard care/placebo. 2021.
   2022-01-0710/11Yes[Zinc] The effects of adding zinc to hydroxychloroquine therapy are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Hydroxychloroquine+Zinc vs Hydroxychloroquine. 2020.
 Other treatments for COVID-19NA2021-12-157/11Yes[Hemadsorption] The effects of using hemadsorption to treat COVID-19 patients are currently uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Rapid reviewBenefits and harmsPan American Health Organization. Ongoing living update of potential COVID-19 therapeutics: Summary of rapid systematic reviews. Rapid review - December 15th, 2021. Washington, DC: Pan American Health Organization. 2021.
   2021-04-205/10No[Nitric oxide] Among severe/critical COVID-19 patients, evidence has shown a slight increase in oxygenation in patients receiving nitric oxide, but no effect on mortality has been reported [Review of mainly observational studies of unclear quality]NoFull reviewBenefits and harmsPrakash A, Kaur S, Kaur C, Prabha PK, Bhatacharya A, Sarma P, et al. Efficacy and safety of inhaled nitric oxide in the treatment of severe/critical COVID-19 patients: A systematic review. Indian Journal of Pharmacology. 2021;53(3):236-243.
   2022-01-0710/11Yes[Photobiomodulation therapy] Using photobiomodulation therapy may reduce mortality; the effects on other outcomes are uncertainYes (row content last checked on 2022-01-10)Full reviewBenefits and harmsCOVID NMA. Photobiomodulation therapy vs Standard care/Placebo. 2021.
   N/A (Protocol)n/aYesurlYes (row content last checked on 2021-12-13)ProtocolOtherPardo SA, Lai S, Ortiz-Munoz L, Bravo-Jeria R, Verdugo-Paiva F, Rada G, et al. Pulmonary rehabilitation for COVID-19: A living systematic review protocol. Medwave. 2021;21(6):e8224.